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fan Kamala Harris is Communist, why did no one (except President Trump) say it?

2020.10.19 23:05 NamNguyen56 fan Kamala Harris is Communist, why did no one (except President Trump) say it?

fan Kamala Harris is Communist, why did no one (except President Trump) say it?


fan Kamala Harris is Communist, why did no one (except President Trump) say it? On Fox Business Network's "Mornings with Maria" on October 8, President Donald Trump described Democratic vice presidential candidate Kamala Harris (D-Calif.) As a "communist; She has left Bernie (Sanders)! "The president went on to quote Senator Harris 'stance, actually even more extreme than Senators Bernie Sanders' (I-Vt.), Or Elizabeth Warren's (D-Mass.).)
But there are six more convincing evidence to show that, yes, Kamala Harris is indeed Communist.
1 / Left-Left
Parents Harris's parents, her mother Shyamala Gopalan, an Indian cancer researcher and Donald Harris, a Jamaican economist, are both tough leftists.
In the early 1960s, the couple was active in the Berkeley African American Association.
According to a former member, Aubrey LaBrie, “Fidel Castro and Che Guevara are heroes of some of us. ... We talked about black Muslims, the liberation movements going on in Africa, everything. "
The leader of the group, Donald Warden, advised two young African-American Association members Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, who would form the Black Panther party in 1966. The Panthers follow the Maoist philosophy. and support communist China. They serve as role models for today's Black Lives Matter movement.
Years later, the Warden (then known as Khalid al-Mansour) played a role in helping Barack Obama enter Harvard Law School.
In 1975, Donald Harris was recruited into the Stanford University economics department as an open Marxist.
2 / Pro-Communist Boyfriend
After joining the radical student union at Howard University, Kamala Harris returned to the Bay Area to begin his legal career. Harris, 30, has aroused public opinion when dating Willie Brown, 60, a leading member of the California Democratic Party, is about to become mayor of San Francisco.
Brown has helped Harris's career and put her on several board positions, and received a salary of around $ 400,000 over five years, according to San Francisco Weekly.
Brown is a longtime communist sympathizer. For the first time, he was elected to the public office with the help of the American Communist Party's youth. He was awarded the Lenin Prize by Dr. Carlton Goodlett, the owner of a communist newspaper, by the former Soviet government.
A few years after his affair with Harris, Brown still publicly funded the Communist Party's fundraising activities in the Bay Area while serving as mayor of San Francisco.
Today, Brown is considered by many to be one of the best friends of the Chinese Communist Party in the Gulf.
3 / The person was led by Kamala Harris close to the communists
While working as a San Francisco district attorney, Harris advised a young San Francisco activist named Lateefah Simon. After hiring her and helping Simon attend college, Harris introduced his young friend to many influential people in San Franciscans. Today, Simon is president of the left-wing Akonadi Foundation and chair of the Gulf Express Transport (BART) board.
When Harris first met Simon, the young woman served on the board of directors at the Oakland-based Youth Empowerment Center. Every other member of the board - Harmony Goldberg, Adam Gold, Cindy Wiesner and later, Obama Green Jobs Czar Van Jones - were members of the Communist group Maoist "Organizing a Revolutionary Together" ( Standing Together to Organize a Revolutionary Movement) (STORM).
Gold is today a member of the LeftRoots, a group affiliated with the Liberation Road group, which supports the Communist Party of China.
Simon is a close friend of another LeftRoots member, the founder of Black Lives Matter, Alicia Garza.
Harris openly supports the Black Lives Matter and remains close to Simon and Garza. In return, Garza is a longtime friend and colleague of Comrade Alex Tom of LeftRoots - who has close ties to the China Progressive Association and the Chinese Consulate in San Francisco.
4 / Financial sponsors under the Communist
Maya Harris, Harris's sister, is a student activist at Stanford University. She is a friend of Steve Phillips, one of the top Marxist-Leninists in the school and a longtime member of the pro-China League of Revolutionary Struggle group.
According to Phillips
' "Politics Intelligence" blog: "First, let me make it clear that I'm out of the Left. I learned Marx, Mao and Lenin. In college, I organized unity efforts for the libertarian struggles in South Africa and Nicaragua, and I spoke to people who considered themselves communists and revolutionaries ..., and I did. does her research on the Black Panther Party. "
After leaving Stanford in the early 1990s, Phillips directed many of his comrades to the Democrats. He is also married to the Sandler billionaire family, which gives the young revolutionary a significant political influence.
Sandler's money has funded the American Progress Center, ProPublica, and numerous candidates and voting initiatives across the country. In 2008, Phillips spent $ 10 million through his PowerPAC-plus on voter registrations in the southern and southwestern states, helping his friend Barack Obama outdo Hillary Clinton in the election. primary election of the Democratic Party.
In 2013, Phillips helped elect his old Stanford friend Cory Booker to the US Senate from New Jersey. In 2018, he almost put his guardians Stacey Abrams and Andrew Gillum as governors of Georgia and Florida, respectively.
Phillips is a friend of the Harris family and helped Maya Harris' husband Tony West become the deputy attorney general in the Obama administration. He is also the main sponsor of the political career of Kamala Harris.
In 2003, Phillips helped Harris win the election, serving as a San Francisco county attorney. Ironically, she defeated incumbent Terence Hallinan, who was a young communist who helped Willie Brown win her first election.
Phillips' PowerPAC-plus helped Harris win the election, served as California Attorney General in 2010 and then to the US Senate in 2016.
5 / Chief of the Secretariat to the Communist
In the early 2000s, current director at Harris's Karine Jean-Pierre is active with the New York-based Haitian Support Network. The organization worked closely with the pro-China / North Korean Workers' World Party and backed Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the former left-right president of Haiti and his radical Lavalas era.
In April 2004, at the Whitman Theater at Brooklyn University, 2,000 people gathered to listen to a program titled "An Evening with Friends of Haiti: The Truth Behind the Haitian Coup".
The protest was co-chaired by Jean-Pierre and Kim Ives of the Haitian Support Network, along with Pat Chin and Sara Flounders from the Workers World Party.
In May 2004, Jean-Pierre joined a delegation to Haiti with two famous comrades of the World Workers Party, Steve Gillis and LeiLani Dowell.
Around the same time, Jean-Pierre was working for friendly New York City Council member James Sanders. Her duties as part of his reelection campaign included working with the local branch of the highly discredited "community organization" ACORN.
6 / The husband is close to the communist party
Doug Emhoff, Harris's husband of law firm DLA Piper, “boasts nearly 30 years of experience in China and more than 140 lawyers specializing in the 'China Investment Services' branch,” according to National Pulse.
National Pulse continued:
“To facilitate the operations of DLA Piper's China - which has received numerous prestigious awards from the China Business Law Review and Chinese Law and Practice - the company employs one a series of former Chinese Communist Party officials.
“Ernest Yang, who served as the company's Head of Legal & Legal and Co-Head of the International Arbitration Committee, was appointed to the People's Political Consultative Conference of China (CPPCC) in 2013. CPPCC serves as the top advisory committee to the Chinese Communist Party, and Yang was promoted to the agency's Standing Committee in 2019.
“Jessica Zhao, Senior Advisor, served as Deputy Secretary-General of the Commission China International Economic and Trade Arbitration (CIETAC), a government-owned body established by the Chinese Communist Party in 1956. It was developed under the auspices of China Promotion Council. International Trade, 'China trade promotion enhancement government agency.'
Several other senior DLA Piper employees, both Chinese and US citizens, served the Chinese regime. Emhoff quit her job at the company in August, The American Law reported.
7 / Does anyone have background checks?
If Biden is elected president, then within a note, Harris will become the female president of the United States.
If Harris applies for an intermediate job in the Department of Agriculture, she will almost certainly fail the security background check. She owes her entire career to those who agree or actively support the Communist Party of China.
Fortunately for her (and possibly catastrophic for the country), elected office-holders are not subject to a security check.
President Trump said, "If Joe Biden is elected, China will own America."
Biden chose the ideal vice president to help China do this.
submitted by NamNguyen56 to u/NamNguyen56 [link] [comments]


2020.09.22 02:09 alitxtile 140 Years of Jeans (Part I): TCB’s Natural Indigo Tribute to the 1880 Waist-Overalls

140 Years of Jeans (Part I): TCB’s Natural Indigo Tribute to the 1880 Waist-Overalls
This is Part I of a write up on 140 years of Jeans. This part focuses on the 1880 Waist-Overalls along with a review of TCB Jeans’ 1880 inspired version of the pair. Part II will be on a more modern pair of jeans by Versace and will be posted later this year. As always, a good bit of history in the beginning of this (A) followed by the review of TCB Jeans’ pair (B).
The start of this decade represents a number of milestones in the history of jeans as we know them . Levi Strauss’ patent on adding rivets to clothing was granted in 1873 yet it is likely that Levi’s own factory didn’t produce until at the 1880’s and most of the oldest pairs we have to my knowledge date to around the this time or a few years prior. This means this is the 15th time a decade has started with riveted clothing being worn. Perhaps just as importantly, this year marks the 140th anniversary of the expiration of Levi’s Strauss patent allowing other companies to produce riveted clothing. Ultimately, the de-Levi-ification of jeans is representative of just how universal their appeal became, the race was not merely for what new innovation would replace riveted clothing but, critically, on how to perfect riveted clothing itself. 140 years on, denim and jeans show no signs of slowing down and continue to define nearly every culture on the planet. This is probably as good of a time as any to go back and look at how we got here and, specifically, to take a deep look at the jeans that so have captured our hearts. Since much has already been written on the history of denim I wanted to take a slightly different approach. Rather than rehashing what we already know I’ll use newspapers from the late-1800’s and early-1900’s to portray what these jeans meant to people and to recapture stories now lost. TCB’s 1880’s waist overalls, based on jeans from the period, will be my window into relating to these stories so by the end I will transition to some reflections based on these jeans and discussing their fabric, construction, as well as their modern-day appeal and their relationship to modern jeans. Also, keep in mind that the term “overall” didn’t refer only to the bib-overall that we connect it with now but was a loose definition meaning something that would be a protective layer—so a pair of overalls could simply come up to one’s waist just like a pair of jeans.
Natural indigo with left-right construction, deerskin leather patch, copper rivets, steel suspenders buttons, and an iron cinch.
(A) Historical Context
The patent system in the United States by the mid to late 1800’s all manner of creative ways from which to improve clothing. These “improvements” in clothing included adjusting them for various waist sizes, increasing durability in high-stress areas, as well as on methods on measuring, cutting, and maintaining clothing. Theodore Sloan for instance in 1870 was a granted a patent for the application of a strengthening fabric at the knees of pantaloons so they would not wear down so readily. Patrick W. Dolan received a grant in 1868 for a ruler specifically constructed for more “correct” measurements of mens pantaloons.
A little over six months after Jacob W. Davis and Levi Strauss’ applied for a patent on adding rivets to clothing, John D. Ryan was granted a patent on a device for maintaining the shape of pantaloons writing that,
My invention has for its object to furnish a device for stretching pantaloons to remove the bagging at the knees, and the wrinkles in the other parts caused by wear, so that the pantaloons may be made perfectly smooth without its being necessary to send them out every few days to be cleaned and pressed, and which shall be simple in construction and convenient in use.
Who needs shoe-trees when you can have pantaloon-trees:
Looks like there is an outline of a cinch in the top!
It’s the addition of rivets to clothing, of course, that is at the center of the jeans-story. While John Davis and Levi Strauss were aware that rivets had been used to secure shoes, Davis’ application involved adding rivets to the pocket opening of the jeans/pantaloons that were likely to fail under pressure. The button fly here was included in the category of “pocket-opening” as in construction and pressure it was essentially an area where an opening was present. The presence of metal rivets so visible on a piece of clothing was likely a curiosity.
The presence of the rivets was originally proposed as “applicable to pantaloons, overalls, coats, vests, and other garments.” But it was the overalls that would be most receptive to the new riveting technique with their convolvement being a potent combination of both durability and comfort. Overalls had become by the 1880’s the premiere workwear outfit. Companies such as Sweet & Orr produced these overalls for workers and created representations and images highlighting their ruggedness. The following ad shows two men battling over a pair of Sweet & Orr’s overalls (The Abilene reflector. September 11, 1884):
Two (Three?) men brand?
Sweet & Orr was likely one of the first clothing producers to popularize this image and predated Levi’s horse logo with the latter potentially being a case of trying to one-up Sweet & Orr’s human strength driver tug of war game with old fashioned horse-power. Sweet & Orr also owned their own factory for producing overalls while it is unclear how early Levi Strauss did so. So, regardless of whether they were riveted or not overalls quickly became the definition of a rugged and free lifestyle. So many stories in the end of the 19th century were intimately connected to overalls: from marriage to murder, life to death. I have selected a few forgotten stories to help capture what overalls meant. Let’s start with an old professor who lost his job partly due to his refusal to wear anything but dirty overalls.
Stories
The Evening Bulletin in Maysville, Kentucky dated to April 18th, 1888 (Number 126) recounts the curious tale of one Alex E. Cohen. Mr. Cohen had moved to Andover around 1860 from New York where he had been teaching the children of the leading families in the languages. His knowledge of Hebrew literature was so impressive that he was given an assistant position at the Andover Theological seminary. The article continues,
He was a very scholarly man, but the very impersonation of carelessness in dress. It is said of him that he frequently appeared before the dignified divinity students unwashed and collarless, a boot on one foot and a rubber on the other. His favorite pantaloon material was overalling. For his uncleanliness and slovenly attire he was expelled from the seminary.
Mr. Cohen when he first moved to Andover was, per the article, ridiculed for his manner of dress and all sorts of rumors were created about his marriage. After his wife moved to the town the year after him the townspeople were shocked at what a charming woman she was. Both lived together in hermitage for 12 or 13 years.
In Mr. Cohen’s case we can see that the comfort provided by of a worn-down pair of overalls is considerable. And if one could not afford more pants, overalls became the de-facto companions to see one through thick and thin. The “ruggedness” of overalls soon became connected with the definition of plasticity and adaptability. Because the overall could do anything and help its wearer in the tasks of life, it itself became a symbol of openness.
By the early 1900’s its clear that the ability to wear the overall if only during out-door activities was both seen as desirable by women as well in out-door activities and was not by any means only for men. The Sun Francisco Sunday Call from September 27, 1907, for instance, describes a group at the camp of women telegraphers referred to as the overall-girls: “[t]here are lots of [. . .] women in Camp Felton and many of them wear overalls.” We even see here that one woman was not “allowed” to wear overalls by her husband and, due to it, was frustrated. Let us not forget that women were still given the right to vote. There is of course a deep irony in having to be given the permission to don something as adaptable as the overall but it is exactly this tension that gave the symbol strength. Wearing the overall when not allowed was of course what made it an even stronger symbol.
The overalls becoming a symbol for adaptability was not only an issue for rigid gender roles but also for rich and poor. The San Francisco Call from August 7th, 1904 contains a rebuttal against those who saw the overalls as unacceptable for the highest dignity a human should aspire to. One Mr. Hearst, had laid an attack on overalls when seeing a rich man’s son donning them:
Mr. Hearst is of the opinion that a rich man’s son should have an ambition above wearing overalls and learning handicraft. The overalls seem to be the specially offensive and are referred to with a bitterness of expression which we thought could not be excited by that harmless and necessary article of clothing. Mr. Hearst if of the opinion that a rich man’s son should put in his time doing good, elevating his fellow man, as it were, and declares that this Young man in overalls is not fulfilling that high mission. We can see no occasion for all this fuss. Men who have had traces and worn overalls had done many a good job at elevating their fellows, and history asks no question about what they wore, whether trousers or overalls.
In fact, the author continues that wearing of the overalls and working with in the shop “shows a very commendable spirit in a rich man’s son that he desires to join his fellow-men in a workshop, learn their trade, take pot luck with them and train his hands to skill in a useful and honorable occupation.” In fact, it seems that Mr. Hearst was against the exclusiveness of the rick yet, the author states, makes a lapse in his usual view because a “rich youngster has dropped exclusiveness and wears overalls and chews his lunch out of a tin bucket.”
The humble overall because it was so inconspicuous, better yet conspicuously inconspicuous allowed the discussion to shift away from attire and onto the actual character of the person. That of course has commonly been the elephant in the room of fashion. Gianni Versace when interviewed about his distaste for ties stated that:
I have a kind of repulsion to. . . for the things you are obliged to wear. Sometimes they send me out of an restaurant, [saying] why I don’t wear a tie. And inside that restaurant there was even mafioso. You can kill people if you wear a tie. (60 minutes)
Betraying what we feel obliged to wear, in this case, becomes an act of self and social calibration to determine whether the superficiality of our appearance or our actions are weighed more heavily by our peers. The overall because of its humility became the touchstone, the measuring bar for this. I like to think that Mr. Cohen, the overall-women, and the rich man’s son all saw it as an instrument for testing the limits of their own freedom.
There is a danger of course in idolizing the overall or its situation. There were dirty and horrible truths amongst the positives. Overall manufacturing and labor, connected with questions of the rights of the work-force as well as immigrant-labor, was at times convolved with horribly racist movements like those seen in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882: The act in different stages used Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and other “Asian” groups as scapegoats for the working man or woman’s trouble and clothing manufacturing was used as a way to scare people into thinking their sewing jobs would be taken by immigrants. Ads from the time-period went as far as to mention that their overalls were produced with white-labor. So if overalls were beginning to be representative of freedom or adaptability their construction and the labor behind it was capable of being co-opted or infected by the most abhorrent human vices. Thankfully, it seems that raw denim in the long run, despite attempts to do otherwise, has maintained its boundary breaking character. The development of the raw denim community as diverse as it is, linking different countries, with cottons from all over the world, and styles which mix inspirations from different cultures is something to grow and protect. The overall and jeans by extension continue to be the article of clothing for everyone gender, race, and class—they transcend that which sought to limit them yet. But the history highlights that this requires constant vigilance.
Going back to this history, even when overall-manufacturing was romanticized, as seen in an article in the Sunday Call article titled "Experiences as a worker in an overall factory" from August 12, 1900, we can see that companies were quite interested in maintaining productivity:
Presently my thread got tangled up and pop went another needle. The girl next to me kindly Stopped work and gave me a few pointers. "You must be careful,", said she, "needles count up. and you know we have to buy them, three for a nickel. Just so slow and you're all right. Look out how you turn on the power,. If you break that big wheel band it's two bits. The little one is 20 cents."
The desire to drive down the cost of overalls manifested as pressure put on the sewing ladies who had to buy the needles they broke. The Weekly Crisis of June 2, 1881 contains a call for overalls to be protected from being merely tools for the fundholders:
Five pair of overalls for a dollar, is a creamy paradise for the fundholders. If the fundholder can swap his dollar that is now worth five pair of overalls for a dollar that is worth ten pair, we will be in his “kingdom come.” If five more pair of overalls could be crowded into a dollar, the fundholder’s dollar would be doubled in value, without his doing a strokes of work; but the sewing woman would have to take twice as many stitches to get the dollar. Hostile law has made one man richer by making another poorer, and they call it strengthening the public credit.
Thus the desire for the overall to be a rugged yet cheap article had, in the author’s eyes, only the allure of the public good while in reality creating worst working conditions for the common woman or man. And how valuable a well-fitting, cheap, and durable pair of pants is was taken to its negative extreme in an article in the Chicago Tribune from February 3rd, 1876 titled “Overalls and Murder”.
Since the original story may be too graphic for some I’ll simply summarize: Because “Mrs. Silar Wilder made a pair of overalls too short,” Silas murdered her as well as his father than himself. The full article despite being graphic contains many satirical elements and notes of commentary. It points out that an overall cut too short is essentially like the breeches worn by George Washington. An overall in one point of time that is too short would be considered too long in another. Through such a telling, the “point” of the article is that overalls ought not be taken too seriously, whether too short or too long they are merely tools of utility. Again, such articles were seemingly attempting to push back against the fashionization of the overall. The overall could only be taken seriously if it wasn’t taken too seriously.
There are of course many more stories around overalls that I have left out; many comedic, some some serious, and others horrifying. Why did it capture everyone’s attention in such a manner? If it is because it was a workwear item then the immediate next question is why was it a workwear item? Why did it become a symbol of adaptability that then had to be protected, and continues to have to be, from negatives such as poor pay, class elitism, gender-roles, and racism? To better understand this I wanted to return to the source by wearing a modern-day jeans inspired by the 1880 waist-overalls. I’ll first introduce you to the construction, fit, and fabric of the TCB’s 1880 overalls and then come back to reflecting on where these waist-overalls fit in the modern world.

(B) TCB Jeans Natural Indigo 1880 Waist-Overalls:
What makes the TCB Jeans so unique is while many companies historically have out-sourced their sewing, including Levi’s in the beginning and even now, TCB Jeans is an entirely in-house sewing operation. Where jeans are sewn, how they are sewn, when they are sewn is usually unknown to the consumer. Yet with TCB Jeans this trend is bucked, we can see that Kikk does all the cutting for their items on the third floor of the main building. All the sewing is done in the second floor. Shiba does the hemming for most of the jeans ordered. Matsu the teen handles adding rivets and attaching cinch-backs to jeans. Yuko-Rin sews every prototype for new TCB products. Ryo handles international customers and helps disseminate the knowledge of TCB to an english speaking audience—I learned a lot from his pamphlet on these jeans that describes how they are constructed, I urge everyone to look at it. Master sewists like Tak handle difficult sewing sections. And Miko handles the behind the scene logistics, and, of course, everyone knows Hajime Inoue as the brand’s owner. The team makes up a sort of denim super hero group coming up with ideas for denim, having fabric custom woven for them, cutting and stitching themselves. And the sewing machines, both old and new, are of course a intrinsic part of the designs and construction chosen by TCB Jeans. This integration, as we will see, makes for a remarkably cohesive pair of jeans and allows TCB to recreate exacting details that elevate denim.
The rivets in all their glory
Selvedge X 4, Sewing x 4
The construction on the 1880’s waist-overalls is simply the best I have ever seen on any pair of jeans. It is sublime. It’s such a tour-de-force that I can’t help but feel that TCB Jeans is simply bragging about what they are capable of. So I want to spend a little time going into the details.The 1880 Waist-Overalls are based on the earliest pairs from 1879 onwards. At this time, these overalls were not flat-felled seam or chain-stitched. Instead they were stitched together with a lapped seam with the edges left completely raw and unfinished.
Selvedge and raw-lapped seams are an experience
Now, to us modern-day denim aficionados we would certainly be familiar with flat-felled seams because they hide the unfinished part of a fabric inside the fold where it is not visible.
It looks nice and clean. One would normally think that this means that the fabric is protected so it will not unravel. Given that the 1880-waist overalls have unfinished seams how could this be prevented? This is where the sewing of TCB shines. Rather than simply stitching two pieces of fabric together with a single thread, the waist overalls contain not one, not two, not three, but four separate threads. And the entire length of all these seams is sew with cotton thread. So as one thread breaks there are three more to replace it. So the seams were not simply stitched once with a double chain-stitch as is common but the machine was taken over the seam multiple times.
You can see two stitches on the right and then a third to their left; but even further left there is yet another thread holding the seam secured tightly (This photo was hard to take, sorry for the quality)
Recall, the whole point of the appeal of the overalls in the past was that their ruggedness and durability bucked the trend of what one ought to dress like. Despite looking “unfinished” because of the exposed seams the waist-overalls contain far more workmanship than more finished pairs of denim. The superbly stitched lapped seams are even more interesting because they are contrasted with the opposite on all ends: selvedge.
The rest of the jeans contain more selvedge edges than any other pair of jeans. The outseam, of course, is selvedge like all selvedge jeans. The watch-pocket too. The button fly, however, is also selvedge, and the entire waist band the all the way around is also selvedge. Simply opening the jeans one is hit by vast swathes of selvedge edges contrasted with quad stitched lapped seams with threads flying out. The loose threads even wrap around each other securing themselves further and can be seen sticking out the hem. It’s one hell of a party trick.
That selvedge button fly? Stitched again with single-needle stitching. You can see that the bottom of the stitching comes closer and closer which, usually, cannot happen because it is double stitched.

The simplicity of the selvedge is gorgeous. So clean. And the contrast between the clean selvedge and the raw edges is an experience.
The raw edges have spun around each other further securing themselves to the left while the clean selvedge peaks out on the right.
More selvedge
Cinches? Cinches and Buttons
The cinch is the most critically important part of these jeans for me. In the late 19th century, belts were not yet fashionable so overalls contained suspenders buttons as well as cinches.
This might seem like just a detail but when we come back to thinking about the utility of these overalls it will be quite important. The cinch is perfectly located below the middle of the waist band. Meaning that if you tighten the cinch it doesn’t tighten directly on your stomach. It tightens below and behind it which keeps the pants up while the waistband is still pliable enough to stretch and grow on the front with you as you eat, drink, and workout throughout the day. The cinch is held together by a custom made iron-piece with prongs sharp enough to hold the belt. Wearing these for over six months the cinch hasn’t slid even once!
Iron cinch
The jeans also contain a host of steel buttons that are already starting to rust quite nicely. The button-fly features five buttons while the suspender buttons are the same as the top-most button and six in number.

Rusting button
Rivets
The rivets, of course, where what made the original Levi’s legendary. Two for the watch-pocket and two for each of the front pockets, two for the single pocket in the back, and as was tradition, one for the crotch, and lastly two for the cinch. They are copper and feel light yet strong.
Closer up of the rivets
Rivets again
Leather Patch
The leather patch on the back is mixed tanned being both vegetable and chrome tanned and is made out of deerskin. The deerskin has a soft texture that fits the pliability of the jeans as a whole and the mixed tannage gives it a natural look while still giving water resistance to age without becoming stiff.
Putting it Together
It’s important to note that when these jeans were constructed in the 1880’s they were not sew as they are now with the front and back being sewn separately then stitched together. Instead, overalls were made by sewing the left and right sides first and then stitching them together through the middle. Additionally, fabrics were pressed with a iron when sewing the seams together rather than using a seam-guide. The fact that TCB recreated even these details really shows that no corner was cut.
In my opinion, the fabric, which I’ll get to in a second, is absolutely perfect for the construction. The benefit of lapped seams over flat-felled seams is that it reduces how bulky the seam is—it makes the seams feel like they are non existent. Combined with a lighter fabric it really feels as if the entire jeans are just a single piece of fabric rather than something held together at the seams.
Natural indigo, American cotton, 8oz
There was no synthetic indigo in the late 1800’s so any indigo dying had to be done by using leaves from the indigo plants. The leaves for TCB Jean’s waist-overalls are grown in India. While the original pairs would have been vat-dyed TCB elected to rope-dye the jeans so that they fade. The threads are dipped in the Indian indigo pool 8 times each without any synthetics used.
Who said 8 oz fabric can’t have incredible feel and texture? Just LOOK at it!
The threads are themselves made using American cotton. I believe that are two kinds of American cotton used to give it a fluffier feel. The end result is a very hairy fabric with a heterogenous color, the natural indigo being darker in some areas than others.
Let’s talk about the weight. This is by far the lightest pair of jeans I have and I was worried initially that the starchy, stiff, rough and heavier feel of 13-18 oz denim would be missed. Having worn these over six months, I have not even once wished that they were heavier. The fabric is so fluffy and hairy and supple that those same 8 oz take up more space in your hand. Additionally, this isn’t a high density high tension lightweight fabric that feels like a shirt, the lower tension of shuttle looms seems to have led to something that feels airy and pliable yet substantial at the same-time.
The color of the fabric is also, to my eyes, beautiful. The natural indigo has a little iridescence to it (not unlike the roadrunner cotton) and a slightly bluer look than the deep purples of synthetic indigo. Both look beautiful but I think the softness of the natural indigo really fits the softer, fluffier, hairier look of the denim. It’s got an oceanic tone to it that is really pleasing.

Worn with a loopwheeled fox cotton t-shirt.
Worn with Tricker’s deerskin chukkas
The construction and fabric, from the cinch to the natural indigo, the American cotton to the rivets, the selvedge to the steel buttons, leads to a pair of jeans that has completely changed the game for me when it comes to utility. If I had to spend the rest of your life in a pair of pants and was never allowed to change this is the undisputed ace. If I have to be stranded on an island this no question hands down the pair I would take. Their loose fit means means that you can run around and jump without feeling restricted, the lack of traditional seams means you can lounge on a couch and be no less comfortable than with pajamas. They are long enough and dense enough to protect from fast wind yet light enough not to hold your body-heat in. Their loose fit again means that they leave enough room for a thermal or long-johns underneath while letting in the air in hot weather. Gained a little waist or ate a big lunch? Loosen the cinch. They are the definition of utility.
Fit Pic 1, worn with my beloved Fox Cotton Type I Jacket
Fit Pic 2, worn with my beloved Fox Cotton Type I Jacket
Reflecting on the 1880’s
I originally looked to TCB’s 1880 jeans as well as newspaper and patents to try and better understand why waist-overalls and their jean descendants have so taken the world by storm cutting across gender, ethnicity, culture, and class.
It’s clear that the late 1800’s were filled with attempts to make the perfect pair of pantaloons. From measuring rulers to jean-stretching devices to ways of sewing button-flys to creating strengthened seams everyone tried to make pants better. Standards for how a pair of pants should be sewn were still evolving and everyone experimented with new techniques. The end result was an age of innovation in construction and stylistic techniques. Yet, there were still no seam guides nor any chain-stitching so the tools available were narrower. The 1880 overalls look and feel like the end product of that innovation were everything had its purpose. The lightweight seams actually make the rivets feel like they are points of strength while with the thicker seams of modern jeans the rivets feel like they exist more for aesthetics. And without bar-tacking the rivets, again, feel again like they have a critical job to do. There is something about their simplicity that is so compelling. No overlock, just single needle stitching, rivets, steel buttons, iron cinch, fabric, and a leather patch. The fabric itself is so incredibly raw, just pure natural indigo over the hairiest fluffiest lightweight American cotton with low tension selvedge.
That makes them liberating in so many ways. They aren’t about projecting an image, they are not only as Versace would say, something we don’t feel obliged to wear but something even rawer and simpler than any other pair of pants. What’s funny of course is that the time put into recreating these simple humble jeans requires more work than any designer label would put into it. From the natural indigo to the quad stitched seams to the single-needle lock-stitch to the ironing and constructing the jeans left to right, they are a remarkable piece of art.
I’ve struggled to come to terms with what the 1880’s mean even after wearing them for six months. They continually amaze me and have probably caused me more angst about what I think denim is about than any other pair. They’re a bit *too* good. Have we really not improved on jeans in 140 years? Is it possible that we just perfected what a pair of utilitarian pants ought to be like and since then have diversified more than improved?
The fact that people like Mr.. Cohen, the overall-women, and the rich-man’s son were so frustrated with not being able to wear overalls that they would transgress their social boundaries is a bit less surprising now. The 1880’s were a product of a lot of hard work, of trying to make people’s lives easier. Once someone donned the overalls it seems going back to anything else didn’t have the same allure. The 1880 overalls somehow free the body and the soul.
Interestingly, I don’t think my appreciation for other jeans has diminished with my experience with the 1880. Looks and silhouette and fades and thicker fabric and the wonderful strength of chain-stitching seams are incredible. But I think its easier to see why those are so interesting when you have contrast. Once we made the perfect pair of utilitarian pants we could compromise here and there to make them look nicer and feel more substantial while still maintaining their casual appeal. The 1880 was a gateway to the wonderful world of modern denim. So it’s really unfortunate that with the advent of the 501’s that the 1880’s got lost in history because modern jeans only make sense when we understand what gave them their impetus.
One last note to conclude:
I think one might wonder what is the exact point of recreating older denim. Is bringing back the 1880 overalls a bit like trying to bring the first Macintosh computer in the modern age of smart phones? Something unwieldy and out of place? In reality, I now feel that it is more like creating Jurassic Park. Trying to recapture the sewing techniques, the style, and substance of the past is tremendously difficult and an art of its own. So the 1880’s are more like a dinosaur. Not in the sense that they are old and dusty but because they are like a T-Rex: absolute wonders of what happens when you take something to its extreme. What can we do when we forget everything except trying to design the most liberating pair of jeans? TCB Jeans by bringing that back are bringing a monster into a new world. And that monster doesn’t for a second pale in comparison to its living descendants or relatives. It has a different architecture but its so committed to a particular way of doing things that there is barely anything that can compete with it on *that* singular focus. The king isn’t dead, long live the king.
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2020.08.19 00:06 magicalbird Asian Male Dating in SF vs NYC

Working on yourself by getting fit, learning social skills, being stylish, and building your career are the most important variables.
That being said, demographics still matter. Throughout the years of my time on the Asian subreddits it's noticeable that the majority of success stories come from NYC and many woe is me stories come from the SF Bay Area region. While you need to work on yourself a lot of it will come down to your priorities.
Here is an example from an anonymous user from Quora.
So, here are the reasons why I feel that the dating scene for Asian men is worse in SF than the NYC:
I still live in and love SF Bay Area, much more than any city in the World, due to the weather and entrepreneurial (tech) culture! And I'm willing to tolerate its drawbacks because of that. But if your main criteria to choosing the city is the dating scene, then definitely go with NYC."
https://www.quora.com/For-an-Asian-male-is-it-easier-to-date-in-San-Francisco-or-NYC-with-all-other-factors-the-same
I also want to add one that the transportation system in NYC also encourages nightlife with the NY subway system whereas the bay area BART trains stop running around 1am. Also the bay area has a ruthless level of traffic so most people living in SF only want to date in SF and maybe Oakland instead of branching out into the suburbs. Same for San Jose or Man Jose as some call it.
Figure out what you want to prioritize and accept where you live or move.
submitted by magicalbird to aznidentity [link] [comments]


2020.08.18 18:09 magicalbird Asian Male Dating in SF vs NYC

Working on yourself by getting fit, learning social skills, being stylish, and building your career are the most important variables.
That being said, demographics still matter. Throughout the years of my time in am it's noticeable that the majority of success stories come from NYC and many woe is me stories come from SF. While you need to work on yourself a lot of it will eventually come down to your priorities.
Here is an example from an anonymous user from Quora.
"Alright, I'm 30, Korean, tall, athletic, successful. I've lived in SF for the last 13 years and my dating life was ok. I've had a few relationships, friends with benefits and many one night stands. 95% of the women I've dated were Caucasian. That being said, I needed to work really hard (and I still do) to get dates.
I've been to NYC 6 times, mostly for work; staying anywhere from 3 days to up to a month. I've had dates every time I've visited. And just found it to be MUCH easier to hook-up and get physical. And after traveling for quite a bit to other countries (and within the US), I'm convinced that SF is one of the worst cities in the World for straight men!
So, here are the reasons why I feel that the dating scene for Asian men is worse in SF than the NYC:
I still live in and love SF Bay Area, much more than any city in the World, due to the weather and entrepreneurial (tech) culture! And I'm willing to tolerate its drawbacks because of that. But if your main criteria to choosing the city is the dating scene, then definitely go with NYC."
https://www.quora.com/For-an-Asian-male-is-it-easier-to-date-in-San-Francisco-or-NYC-with-all-other-factors-the-same
Figure out what you want to prioritize and accept where you live or move.
submitted by magicalbird to AsianMasculinity [link] [comments]


2020.08.17 02:36 Readerstein [Sweet Nola] - Chapter 9

Chapter 1
The second semester courses have all but finished and the dreaded time of exams have finally arrived. For Nola, she couldn't wait to get it over. There was the after exam party, Eleanor's and Allie's concert in the city theatre and last but not least, a corporate paid vacation to the USA coming up. There was a whole slew of summer events waiting for her.
In her free time when she wasn't out drinking in the pub with her college colleagues, she read through her neatly written notes and researched beyond what the courses covered. Her notes were written in beautiful neat female handwriting.
After the humiliation she considered in the research project module, she upped her game tenfold regarding her thesis. She rang up her company writing with the urgency of a cry to war. With her supervisor and team, she worked them aggressively to the bone. There was such fury and fire from Nola's mania that two team members transferred themselves to a different team wanting out. The end result was a thesis plan so fully formed and well written that it had in its own right become a perfectly submittable thesis.
Her roommate that possessed incredible mass, Lauren, walked into the kitchen. Her flabs wobbled like jelly as she waddled to the sink. Her stubby short arms reached for the cupboards for a glass and she filled it with tap water. Despite her looks, she was a neat person on the outside. She'd clean her glass after using it instead of dropping it into the sink as Nola would have done in her old home. She'd wash the dishes the rare time she didn't order takeaway and she hardly came out of her room so she didn't make a mess outside. She worked at home in her room all day. She had a motherly and considerate personality. She leaves her room door open for Allie when Nola was out and she was approachable in case he needed anything. Nola and Lauren were good friends and she would invite her out to the college parties when Eleanor was over to look after Allie.
Lauren caught Nola looking at her with an empty bliss.
"How's studying going?"
Nola threw her head down on the table and breathed out a hefty sigh.
"I need to study with a drink in one hand and notes on the other."
"Sure, there's beer in the fridge."
Lauren did not catch her sense of humour at all.
"If I start now, I'll be knocked out before Allie even gets home from school. What a bad example I'll set," she paused, seeing if Lauren at least knew how to smile. She didn't. "What about your work?"
"Oh, it's going so-so." She bobbled her head as she spoke and her flabs jiggled like a wave. "It's tough, organising the team's Jira and Confluence and picking up the messes they leave. I'm currently learning how to use JAVAX on the side."
Nola gave a look of feigned understanding.
"I've also been planning my wedding."
Nola's life revitalised at this point. That, she understood.
"Sit down, tell me if you have time."
And so Lauren described her dream wedding that she was seeing through, a mediaeval fantasy themed wedding. Nola's knowledge of fantasy only went as far as the Lord of the Rings movie. She imagined the groom and bride in chain armour while saying their vows at the altar in a fashion of being knighted by the priest.
Nola sat and listened with wide eyes and her heavier than usual eye bags. Lauren was such a land whale and managed to bag somebody considering her uptight personality. She would dawdle on and on with women chatter but on tech. She was stern, righteous and commanding. Nola guessed that her boyfriend was held on a leash like a dog. She felt envious.
"We have a house by the lake eyed."
"Things are moving fast," Nola commented. "Are you thinking of having children?"
"No. Well, maybe. Twenty-nine is still young. There's tons more time to mull over. I'm in no rush at all."
Tons more was right, Nola thought. Twenty-nine though; it seems most marriages with people she knew were married by then. Beauty had an expiration date. Nola's sister was three years older and she learnt she was engaged a few months ago.
Lauren excused herself to go stare off at her computer again. Allie came home not so long later and now the two of them sat at the kitchen table doing school work. She looked at him quietly doing homework. He looked back at her. They traded looks every few seconds like a game to see who how long they could look before the other spotted the staring.
"What~?" He giggled.
"Just thinking."
"Thinking 'bout what?"
"Thinking about-" and she jumped over to him and lifted him up, took him to their bedroom and had a sibling wrestling match where Nola always lost due to exhaustion. This was all she needed. She flicked on the TV in their room and watched an afternoon cartoon mindlessly with Allie before falling asleep.
The five exams took place over a period of two weeks around the college. Most of them were sat in the large event halls of the college gym. For one of the exams, she came in ten minutes late. Everybody in the class breathed a collective sigh when they saw her grab her seat.
The electronic bell rang to signal the end of the exam. While the examiners collected the papers. Mark, who was sitting in front of her, turned around to give the predictable banter at Nola on her usual tardiness.
Ben was two seats behind her and had always left thirty minutes before the exam was over so he wasn't trapped to stay to the very end. Not many decided to leave before the exam was over. She had not spoken to him since the study period started. He said he was busy studying.
She headed home to study more and the days repeated like a drunken stupor to her. Study, eat, study eat, study, eat study, study eat more sleep study eat study eat sleep...
The last day of exams took place and plans of drinking had been on the table since the beginning. Tonight will be the last big one since the hDips will be graduating and they made up two thirds of the classes. She felt a bit depressed but that may be because today's was the hardest exam. The exam was the social marketing module taught by the cowboy strapped American. She had created a very social class with multiple group projects that Nola greatly enjoyed. Some projects actually involved real start-ups looking for strategies. Hard working college students, who paid expensive tuition fees, were giving them ideas for free! Nola felt she took a bite of the infamous non-paid internship of the great states of America. Annoyed as she was, she felt at home with real business scenarios compared to the theoretical nonsensical Marxist theory that the Texan taught in class.
There was only one question for the exam and that was: 'Describe Social Media through Marx's Gobble Gook'. This was not how it was phrased but it was indeed an accurate interpretation of the one question of the exam. Easy, she thought. She put her pen to paper.
“Well, the knowledgeable labour aristocracy derives...and the rate of exploitation depends on the varying...finally, by Marx (1867), it is given through proven mathematical theory that... profit rate is equal to the surplus value divided by the fixed costs plus variable cap...” As she wrote, she wondered if Marx and Engels were appalled to see their precious philosophy applied to social media and causing suffering for the poor marketing students.
The Texan lecturer's class involved the study of a textbook that sought to apply the theory of communism to social media. It was an apt model, she thought. However, the text was the most pretentious and coercive, academically abstractly dense as one could write, jumping from far-fetched hyperlinking of dense references and written in the most peremptory and obtuse mangling of words as possible. It was without doubt, the worst book she had ever laid her eyes upon.
After her intense study on the communist manifesto of social media, she felt ready to compose her thesis for next year in flowery abstract language that academics flaunt in.
Not once did the pen waver and when the final bell tolled, the ink cartridge was drained to the tip. Two whole exam books were filled up in its entirety with fast, sloppy cursive. Her normally neat handwriting was sacrificed for speed.
She came out of the hall and shielded her eyes when the summer sunshine struck. She saw her close group of friends in her marketing course and her usual beta orbiters chatting to each other in a circle.
Nola slinked into the group and saluted Asim beside her with a casual wave. The Korean was speaking rather hotly about the exam.
"The whole theory of Marx's is so stupid. I have never read something so stupid in my entire life," Jeong said.
"Yeah, I agree," Nola nodded.
"What I'm saying though, is you have to force yourself to write what the examiners looking for," Keith said.
"Yeah, that's common sense," Jeong agreed.
Nola knew why Jeong was probably so annoyed. It was because he was South Korean and he hated the commies in the north. Jeong didn't like communism because it opposed his religion. Jeong had told Nola in one of the many drinking parties that he was a devout Christian. It surprised her. He proudly told her that he was part of the Shinsheonji Church of Jesus. He believed that the founder of the church, Man-hee Lee, was the second coming of Jesus Christ, our lord and saviour.
"Did you see her?" Jeong was talking about the cowboy strutting lecturer. He did not let his grudge go away easily, "We call that cosplay where I'm from."
"I think it looks exotic. She's Texan and that's how all Texas dress up, I'm sure."
"Yeah, of course. They all strut outside wearing a wide brim hat, long brown cowboy coats and those boots with those spinning stars at the back. Yeah, I'm sure they all look like they jumped out of a Wild West serial." They laughed.
Nola asked them all for a picture. There were some in this little group, like Keith, that weren't part of the marketing master's. For them, this was their last exam. Nola was going to make sure she'd get pictures of everybody. She had taken Ben's advice. She would post it in their class' group chat. But mostly, it was for herself to look back on.
They headed in their group of four down to town for some grub that would line their stomach for the alcohol tonight. It was going to be the biggest party of the class.
They went to a pizza joint that Keith recommended after searching for the best pizza parlors in town online. It was nice, a bit rundown. It was ran by actual Italians that made pizza that wasn't anything like actual Italian pizza.
Nola fiddled with her phone, scrolling through the messages in the group chat and put out a message if anybody would like to join them. She had seen Ben in the corner of her eye as they exited the student building. Even he had stayed to the very end of that exam. She was about to message him privately and saw his profile; he had not been online for over a month.
Last time, he didn't go to the party after the Christmas exams as well. Everybody did. Except him. So be it. She went up to the counter to grab two more slices of pizza and shoved it aggressively into her mouth.
"No drinks?" Jeong asked.
"Oh, we're be drinking soon Jeong-ny boy. The bar's just a short walk from here,” Keith said. "We won't be parched by the time we get there."
"Some of them are already there," Asim checked his phone.
"They headed straight there after the exam."
"I'm full. Let's get this party started," Nola growled with hunger for the drinks. "They'll be on round three by the time we get there."
"You'll catch up in no time."
Nola leaned back and rubbed her tummy like a big momma bear. Her eyes swirling in craze for alcohol. Her college friends thought she was a beer meister due to her fridge-like build that suggested a large calorie intake. She was actually a cocktail person. She liked the colourful taste and looks of those little dainty drinks.
When they arrived at the bar, they found one of their classmates buying a pint. He was tall, handsome and blond and a fine Aryan specimen. 
"There's five of them out at the back."
Nola gave a sly pat on the buttocks of the tall, stoic man which made him twirl and spill some foam from his pint.
"Nola, you big perv," said Asim. They all laughed except the prude Korean who shook his head and muttered, "Westerners" beneath his breath.
Soon the beer garden crowed with students from the marketing discipline and some others but it remained predominantly a turf for the marketing students. Nola went around taking pictures of the final day. She knew when she would look back further along the years that time seemed to have flung by. The year had passed slowly in the beginning, life in a new city, meeting new people, a new home and a refreshing restart from the stagnant office life of withered old men.
Next year would be lonelier, there would be no classes, and the whole year was focused solely for writing their thesis. She couldn't believe people paid for the course. A year of nothing with an expensive college fee. She was lucky that the company paid for all of her expenses.
A tall, bald man went over to Nola's table. He had deep sunken eyes and heavy eye bags, no doubt from studying, she assumed. His ears was pointed and the top of his head was pointed. He had a Van Dyke beard and wore a long, thick, black overcoat. His whole menacing appearance resembled some mook from a mafia or a vampire movie. He stood a head and a half taller than Nola. Nola had learnt that he was from Latvia from past conversations with him. That made sense, she thought, a former Soviet country just like myself.
The bald thug of a man had let them know of a music competition in the club beside this bar. There was a DJ contest held tonight and one of the marketing students had entered. With enough people, they could rig it. Nola and her crew went in with full intent to help them. The music was awful and she left with a splitting headache. She left alone and went back to the original bar. She had hoped to see Ben there. Ben was the first person she met in college, the only one that seemingly eluded her. There was no surprise when she saw the same familiar faces at the bar. She decided to go back home. At least Allie was always there.
The exams were over, college life has halted. There was the paid vacation to look forward to.
She had received an email with all the details regarding the work convention in San Francisco. This was the third time she would go on a corporate trip and she had learnt from a friend on how the reimbursements were handled. The friend was one of the employees who handled the accounting for corporate trips. She told Nola that as long as it didn't surpass one thousand euro, they didn't inquire deeply into the expenses. Added in with a little photoshop to doctor two airplane tickets into one expense, she could travel with a companion. Every year, hundreds of millions disappeared mysteriously for the poor global behemoth of a company.
She planned to take a friend with her, all airline expenses paid for the lucky one.
But before that, Eleanor and Allie were preforming at the City Hall Theatre next week. Eleanor, a world renowned pianists, was drawing huge news for the music festival in the modestly sized city. Nola had invited her beta orbiters but not Ben. There has never been a person that annoyed her so much as him from doing nothing.
....
Eleanor looked across to Allie who had the honours of finishing off Mozart's Sonata for 2 Pianos in D. A roar of applause erupted from all five hundred in the audience of the concert hall.
There was an after party in the small bar in the upstairs lobby. Allie was surrounded with journalists interviewing the little prodigy. Some jested lightly about him being in a wheelchair. I'll give up my legs to play as well and so on. Eleanor fended them off, becoming disgruntled in her quick tempered manner after that joke. Nola stood across from them and watched with a colourful cocktail in hand. Nola didn't mind the jokes. Pity was the thing she hated the most.
There were professional music producers who attended the event for Eleanor and they were arguing over each other with Nola in the middle about signing recordings and collaborations. She appeared meek to their offers and thought to herself that she might ask Eleanor later. She wasn't planning to give up Allie to anyone.
She looked at Allie, now chatting joyously to a group of girls his age, playing some game whereby he placed his hand on top of theirs, moving their little fingers in unison to play an invisible keyboard.
"What's the matter?" Eleanor popped over to her standing table after relishing in front of the press and soaking in appraisal and then kicking them all away. "You look a bit melancholic. Are you sad because Allie's coming over with me for a month."
"It's more than that Ellie. Take care of him for me and send pictures regularly to me." Nola listed her lengthy requirements to Eleanor. Eleanor's eyes rolled up for the whole duration. She decided to change the subject.
"Have you found somebody to travel to your work convention?"
"No. Sarah's working and all my closer classmates are gone on their own paths and holidays." She sighed.
"Did you ask Ben? I thought I saw him earlier. He has good taste in music to say the least," she said to Nola but she wasn't listening. She was looking lethargically around the room.
Her Korean friend Jeong was by the bar counter flirting with a lady in a red dress, abandoning Nola. Lauren was here with her hubby and Matt was here as well. He had developed quite an infatuation with Eleanor since they met when he drove them over to their new home. Eleanor saw him as a handy butler. Behind Eleanor, she saw a phantom. She was sure of it. A phantom that appears whenever she averts her eyes.
It jumped and darted down the stairs. Nola brushed passed Eleanor, nearly toppling her drink, pushed herself across the crowd only to find the man walk back up the stairs. The man wore the black and white formal attire and a masquerade mask.
"Ben!"
He slowly took of his mask. His handsome, young face, tanned skin, flaxen hair, lean physique and unmistakable eyebrows had caught Nola. What drew her in the most out of his attributes was his strangeness. An eccentricity that Eleanor had noticed.
He paused, looking unsure of what to say, “What are the chances? I'm here as a photographer for the event.” He raised up his professional looking camera with a large flash attachment and a lens that protruded seven inches of air in front of him. “I saw the event on the papers. Thought I'd come, ha-ha. How's it going?”
"You should have told me. I could have gotten you tickets for you for free." She wanted to scold him, the fact that he didn't show up for the final party as well. She furrowed her eyebrows. Why didn't he just say so if he wanted to come?
She dragged him away downstairs and outside. They walked down the cool, empty night street.
"Don't you have to stay by your brother?" he asked. "What's wrong?” he asked again when she didn't reply.
"My brother's fine," she let out a sigh and then continued, "he's going over to Eleanor’s for a few weeks."
"Oh."
"Let me see your photos."
Ben sweated in the cool, night air, keeping up with her as she walked with a vigorous pace and purpose.
Ben turned on the camera and passed it over to her hands while it still hung around his neck. He had swapped the memory card when he dropped down the stairs and was perfectly content with her swiping through the photos.
"These are amazing!" There was a photo that showed Allie up close angled from the bottom. "How did you even get this angle?"
"I was hiding beneath the floorboards for that one."
She laughed not believing him. "Send me all of them. You have some serious talent." She looked at him, he was much closer now; he had thick eyebrows that balanced the masculinity of his youthful, delicate face. He wore an expression of sly innocence that Allie did often, like when he's hiding something.
"Things like art are wholly subjective,” he answered.
They discussed the music performance, music they like, surprisingly they both liked to listen to movie soundtracks, talked a good length about the art they like, of her friends and his photography adventure. A man had broken into his home once and he vowed to find the culprits. He went through extreme lengths, studied criminal profiling and broke into nearby surveillance cameras. Once he deduced as much as he could, he waited patiently for the culprit using the hacked CCTV cameras. He even snuck into a neighbour's house suspecting them. In the end he failed to find the culprits, he said this all with icy coldness. His final year project came from this experience and his obsession with photography stemmed from this event as well.
He kept her second guessing at every turn as he told her. What he lost in the burglary, he had gained something else. It was the same with Allie, she thought. He had the night of his life tonight because he couldn't walk. She decided to tell Ben about his brother's disability.
There were complications during their mother's pregnancy that the doctor could not explain. He was taken out by an emergency C-section. He suffered an unexplainable neurological disorder. Anything below his waist, he couldn't move except his toes.
"Isn't that weird? How does it happen that the toes can wiggle but not the upper parts! I just don't know," the frustration crept into her voice. Ben could only look at her.
"World's fucked," he casually lets out. She laughed. A laugh that she used to veil her sadness.
They arrived onto the cobblestone street of the main shopping district. It was bustling with happy couples, groups of trashy, dolled up girls in tight, short dresses and two happy drunks staggering and shouting obscenities at a copper statue.
"I have a proposal to make."
Ben listened and could not believe what he heard. Nola had invited her to a trip abroad to San Francisco, airline tickets paid.
"Are you sure you want me?" he asked, eyes wide in disbelief. Eleanor seemed to be the natural choice but she was staying with Allie. He roughly estimated how much it would cause for the other expenses. He came to the conclusion it was a once in a lifetime out of the deal.
"I think you'll make for a good travel companion." she looked at his clear cut features trying to guess his thought process. "I think I'm pretty dependable and hassle free if you're worried," she reassured him. "Come, and bring your camera."
He accepted. He was starting to like her as a person.
Chapter 10
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2020.07.09 08:41 Justwonderinif Golden State Killer Timeline I

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-Joseph Sr and Kathleen purchased a small home in Rancho Cordova at 10605 Olson Drive.
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Golden State Killer Timeline II >>>
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2020.07.09 07:36 Justwonderinif Golden State Killer Timeline I

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Golden State Killer Timeline II >>>
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2020.07.09 03:29 Justwonderinif Golden State Killer Timeline I

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Golden State Killer Timeline II >>>
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2020.07.06 17:54 sonofabutch The All-I Team!

Recently I put together an All-Q Team -- the 25 best of the 51 players in MLB history who have last names starting with Q. (And that followed my post as to which last name has the most players (M, 2,040) and which has the least (X, 0). Q has the second-fewest, with 51.)
The Q team's performance would be... shall we say... Questionable. Basically it's starting pitchers Jack Quinn and Jose Quintana, relievers Dan Quisenberry and Paul Quantrill, and one hitter -- slugger Carlos Quentin. Everyone else had career bWAR in the single digits, or negative.
The letter with the next fewest players is I, with 59. I thought it would be Interesting to look at the All-I Team. Would it be as Inadequate as the All-Q team, or would a pool of just eight more names be a big Improvement?
Of the 59 players, six are still active, according to baseball-reference.com; five played in MLB in 2019. (The active player who didn't appear in MLB last year was pitcher Gregory Infante, who had been signed by the Orioles but released before the season started; earlier this year they again invited him to spring training, but he's not on the 60-man roster.)
One odd thing I noticed is a fair number of these I-guys would become minor league managers, just as it seemed a disproportionate number of Q'ers died relatively young. I guess baseball teams think if your last name starts with I, you must be Intelligent enough to be a manager!
Batters: The I's have much more Impressive hitters than the Q's. The leading hitter on the Q-team is OF Carlos Quentin, with 10.5 bWAR; he'd rank 11th on the I-team! The Q-team's starting nine had just 27.1 career bWAR; the I-team's lineup has 152.3!
C Chris Iannetta - 15.0 bWAR, .230/.345/.406 (98 OPS+), 3,563 AB (2006-2019). "Sponge" consistently posts an OBP a hundred points higher than his batting average -- even in 2010, when he hit .197 but still got on base nearly 32% of the time. Casual fans look at a walk as something negative the pitcher did, not something positive the batter did -- a mistake by the pitcher rather than an accomplishment by the batter. But it's absolutely a skill and Iannetta proves it every year. Pitchers don't want to walk a guy with a career .230 BA, yet he gets walks.
1B Frank Isbell - 14.6 bWAR, .250/.289/.326 (89 OPS+), 4,219 AB (1898-1909). Nicknames in the Deadball Era were notoriously cruel. Hazen Cuyler was a stutterer who had trouble with his own last name; he's immortalized as Kiki Cuyler, mocking the way he pronounced it. William Hoy, who was deaf, was known as "Dummy." Charles Briody's round face and growing waistline earned him the nickname "Fatty." As for Frank, who was sensitive about losing his hair early in his 20s, his teammates dubbed him "The Bald Eagle." Frank's career slash-line of .250/.289/.326 isn't impressive, but he did have a tremendous year for the 1905 Chicago White Sox (.296/.335/.440, a 149 OPS+). Isbell played most of his games at first base, but he played all over the field -- literally, as he's one of the few men in MLB history to have multiple games at every position. He even pitched in 17 games, posting a 3.46 ERA in 88.1 innings!
2B Omar Infante - 16.9 bWAR, .271/.308/.387 (87 OPS+), 5,271 AB (2002-2016). Omar is the first of many players born in Venezuela; are last names starting with I more common there? Infante was primarily a utility man for the first half of his career, playing second, third, short, and all three outfield positions; it wasn't until 2010, at the age of 28, the Braves gave him 500+ plate appearances for just the second time in his career. He responded with his best season, hitting .321/.359/.416 and making his one and only All-Star appearance. He would spend the rest of his career as a starting second baseman. A tragic note: Omar's older brother, Asdrubal Infante, was a promising pitching prospect with the Tigers -- he posted a 1.09 ERA with 51 K in 33 IP in rookie ball in 1999 -- but was murdered that same year in a robbery in Venezuela. He was just 17 years old.
3B Brandon Inge - 19.2 bWAR, .233/.301/.384 (82 OPS+), 5,014 AB (2001-2013). Inge was a shortstop and pitcher at Virginia Commonwealth University, but the Tigers drafted him in the 2nd round in 1998 with the intention of converting him to a catcher. After three seasons in the bigs, he was moved to third base, where both his offense and his defense greatly improved. (Inge would hit .199/.260/.330 in 1,271 PA as a catcher, and .243/.315/.402 in 4,102 PA as a third baseman!) In 2008, Inge went on the disabled list when he strained a muscle trying to position a pillow under the head of his sleeping son.
SS Arthur Irwin - 15.2 bWAR, .241/.299/.305 (81 OPS+), 3,871 AB (1880-1894). The Q-Team had a lot of Quinns -- 13 of the 51 Q's in MLB history, or 25%, have the last name Quinn. For the I's, it's Irwin. Eight of the 59 I's are Irwins, or 13.5%. The first in both alphabetical order and by most bWAR is Arthur Irwin, a 19th century infielder who was later a manager, umpire, scout, and part-owner of a minor league team. At the age of 63, Irwin -- who during his playing days was known by the nicknames Doc, Foxy, and Sandy -- took ill and was hospitalized. His son came to visit him... and was surprised to discover another son visiting him as well. It turned out Irwin had married two women and had two families, one in New York and another in Boston. Soon after, Irwin boarded a ship and was never seen again. It was ruled a suicide, but who knows... maybe he settled down with a third family!
LF Raúl Ibañez - 20.9 bWAR, .272/.335/.465 (111 OPS+), 7,471 AB (1996-2014). Ibañez, the son of Cuban refugees, hit .272/.347/.572 and set career highs in OPS and HR (34) in his lone All-Star season... at the age of 37! Over his 19-year career, Ibañez had an OPS+ over 100 twelve times. His career bWAR was dinged by his defense -- 28.7 oWAR, but -17.3 dWAR. CF Ender Inciarte - 18.9 bWAR, .286/.338/.398 (95 OPS+), 2,922 AB (2014-2019). A 2017 All-Star and three-time Gold Glove award winner, Inciarte was signed out of Venezuela as a 18-year-old amateur by the Diamondbacks in 2008, but he would spend the next six years in the minors; the Phillies claimed him via the Rule V draft prior to the 2013 season, but had to return him after just one game (in which he didn't play) when they claimed Ezequiel Carrera off waivers. The D'Backs finally gave Inciarte a chance in 2014, and he would hit .292 for them over the next two seasons. Arizona then traded him to the Braves (with former #1 overall pick Dansby Swanson and Aaron Blair) for Shelby Miller and Gabe Speier, one of the moves that doomed Arizona GM Dave Stewart.
RF Monte Irvin - 21.3 bWAR, .293/.383/.475 (125 OPS+), 2,499 AB (1949-1956). "Mr. Murder" was a Negro Leagues star whose career was cut short by segregation and military service. Most believed he was the best player in the Negro Leagues, but it was Jackie Robinson, not Irvin, who first crossed the color line. Irvin was 30 years old when he finally got the chance, two years after Jackie, to play in the bigs. His best year was 1951, when he hit .312/.415/.514 with 24 HR and 121 RBI, finishing third in the MVP race. "As great as he was in 1951," said Roy Campanella, who won the MVP that year, "he was twice that good 10 years earlier." Irvin was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1973.
DH Pete Incaviglia - 10.3 bWAR, .246/.310/.448 (104 OPS+), 4,233 AB (1986-1998). "Inky" was one of the best college players of his generation, setting an NCAA record with 100 home runs in 213 games at Oklahoma State. He told teams interested in drafting him that he wouldn't sign unless they allowed him to skip the minors; the Expos took him 8th overall but immediately traded him to the Rangers. (MLB later adopted a rule prohibiting trades of newly drafted players, informally dubbed "The Pete Incaviglia Rule.") Incaviglia would then hit 30 home runs as a 22-year-old rookie... which would turn out to be his single-season career high. A low-average, high-strikeout player, Incaviglia played for six teams in 12 seasons -- not counting the Expos or the Diamondbacks, who signed him to a minor league deal in his final season -- plus one season in Japan. He would later be a hitting coach and manager in the minors.
Bench: There were an extraordinary amount of Infielders whose last names start with I; some good ones couldn't make the cut. The five guys on the bench total 45.3 bWAR... Q's bench was -1.5.
UT Maicer Izturis - 11.3 bWAR, .269/.331/.372 (90 OPS+), 3,013 AB (2004-2014). "Mighty Mouse" nearly evenly split his career between third base (2,552 innings) and second base (2,456 innings), but he also played nearly 1,700 innings at shorstop. Though his career OPS+ was below average, he did have some good offensive years -- .293/.365/.412 in 2006 and .300/.359/.434 in 2009. A series of injuries ended the Venezuelan's career after the 2014 season.
SS José Iglesias - 11.1 bWAR, .273/.315/.371 (84 OPS+), 2,706 AB (2011-2019). The 18-year-old Iglesias defected from Cuba during the 2008 World Junior Championship and signed with the Red Sox, immediately becoming one of the team's top prospects. He bounced up and down between Boston and the minors in 2011 and 2012, but in 2013 he won the starting job and after a tremendous start (.330/.376/.409 in 63 games) was included in a three-team deal for Jake Peavy. He would spend five seasons with the Tigers, hitting .268/.312/.364; last year he signed with the Reds and hit .288/.318/.407. Now 30, this off-season he signed a one-year deal with the Orioles.
3B Charlie Irwin - 9.2 bWAR, .268/.331/.345 (82 OPS+), 3,685 AB (1893-1902). Primarily known for his glove -- he ranked 1st or 2nd in 3B fielding percentage in five of his 10 seasons -- Irwin hit a respectable .273/.346/.317 (105 OPS+) with the Brooklyn Superbas in 1902, his final season in the bigs, then would go on to play several more seasons in the Pacific Coast League, and like so many others on this team would later be a manager.
1B/3B/OF Mike Ivie - 7.3 bWAR, .269/.324/.421 (110 OPS+), 2,694 AB (1971-1983). The first overall pick of the 1970 draft by the San Diego Padres, Ivie made his debut as a September call-up at the tender age of 18, going 8-for-17 with 3 RBIs in six games as a catcher. He'd return to the bigs in 1974, now a first baseman; they'd later try him at third and in the outfield, too. (His best position was probably DH.) A right-handed hitter good at mashing lefties (.693 OPS vsR, .846 OPS vsL), Ivie would top 400 ABs just three times in 11 seasons. He retired at the age of 30.
2B Tadahito Iguchi - 6.4 bWAR, .268/.338/.401 (93 OPS+), 1,841 AB (2005-2008). A star player in Japan, Iguchi came to MLB as a 30-year-old in 2005, signing with the White Sox. He would hit .278/.342/.438 and finish fourth in the ROY voting, and became the first Japanese-born position player to win a World Series. He returned to Japan in 2009 and would finally retire in 2017 at the age of 42. Iguchi has four rings -- one with the White Sox and three from Japan -- and since 2018 has been manager of the Chiba Lotte Marines.
Starting Pitchers: So it's going to be great hitting vs great pitching. The I-team has the bats, but the Q-team has the arms: The I's best pitcher would be #3 on the Q's, and after that... it's not pretty. The I-team has just 21.4 bWAR from its rotation, compared to 77.9 for the Q-team.
SP Hisashi Iwakuma - 16.9 bWAR, 63-39, 3.42 ERA, 1.143 WHIP, 883.2 IP (2012-2017). One advantage the I-team has over the Q-team is Japanese players, who represent three-fifths of the starting rotation. The ace is Kuma, who went 107-69 with a 3.25 ERA in Japan and then came to the United States where he had six pretty good seasons, all with the Mariners and all after his 30th birthday. His best year was 2013, when he was an All-Star and finished third in the Cy Young Award voting, going 14-6 with a 2.66 ERA and 1.006 WHIP.
SP Hideki Irabu - 3.4 bWAR, 34-35, 5.15 ERA, 1.405 WHIP, 514.0 IP (1997-2002). Irabu was a star in Japan with the Chiba Lotte Marines who wanted to pitch in MLB... specifically with the Yankees. Under an existing arrangement with the Padres, Chiba sold Irabu's rights to San Diego in 1997 and then traded him to New York for Ruben Rivera, Rafael Medina, and $3 million in cash. The first season of Irabu's four-year, $12.8 million deal was a disaster (5-4, 7.09 ERA, 1.669 WHIP), but he wasn't bad in 1998-1999 (24-16, 4.44 ERA, 1.315 WHIP). But Boss Steinbrenner didn't like him and he was traded to the Expos, where he went a disappointing 2-7 with a 6.69 ERA in two seasons. In 2002 he was used as a reliever with the Rangers, going 3-8 with 16 saves. He would then return to Japan, pitching two seasons before retiring in 2005. He briefly came out of retirement in 2009 to pitch in independent leagues in both the United States and Japan. In 2011, Irabu apparently hanged himself in his California home. He was just 42.
SP Mike Ignasiak - 0.9 BWAR, 10-4, 4.80 EARA, 1.504 WHIP, 137.0 IP (1991-1995). A teammate of Barry Larkin, Jim Abbott, and Scott Kamieniecki at the University of Michigan, Ignasiak went 47-25 with a 3.23 ERA in eight minor league seasons -- including a 55.2 scoreless inning streak between 1993 and 1994 -- then went 10-4 with a 4.80 ERA over four seasons with the Brewers. In 1996, he signed with the Red Sox but suffered a back injury that ended his career. He took up golf in his mid-30s and became one of the top amateur players in the country.
SP Bert Inks - 0.5 bWAR, 27-46, 5.52 ERA, 1.733 WHIP in 603.2 IP (1891-1896). A 6'3" lefty, Inks and his brother Will both played for Notre Dame. Will and a third brother, Fred, also played a little pro ball but only Bert made it to the bigs. He pitched for six teams in just five seasons, most of them bad.
SP Kazuhisa Ishii - -0.3 bWAR, 39-34, 4.44 ERA, 1.528 WHIP, 564.0 IP (2002-2005). Walks were Kaz's downfall, with 5.6 BB/9 over his four-year MLB career. After leaving the bigs, the lefty returned to Japan where he'd pitch until the age of 40 for a total of 18 seasons. In Japan, Ishii went 143-103 with a 3.63 ERA and 1.307 WHIP (and 3.9 BB/9, 8.8 K/9).
Relief Pitchers: Once again, the Q-team comes out on top. Team Q had 54.4 bWAR from its relievers; the I-team, less than half that at 25.3 (and most of that coming from their closer).
RP Jason Isringhausen - 13.0 bWAR, 51-55, 300 SV, 3.64 ERA, 1.328 WHIP, 1007.2 IP (1995-2012). One of the first players I think of when it comes to I-names, Izzy finished fourth in the NL ROY voting after an impressive debut season (9-2, 2.81 ERA, 1.280 WHIP) with the New York Mets at the age of 22. But injuries, ineffectiveness, and a bout with tuberculosis caused his Mets career to fizzle, and in 1999 he was traded to the Oakland A's where he would become a top closer. He was named to two All-Star teams and recorded 11 post-season saves.
RP Raisel Iglesias - 8.3 bWAR, 14-29, 98 SV, 3.17 ERA, 1.135 WHIP, 388.2 IP (2015-2019). Raisel Iglesias apparently isn't related to Jose Iglesias, but were born in, and fled from, Cuba. Raisel signed with the Reds, who converted him to a starter (he had been a reliever with the Cuban national team), but after going 4-8 with a 3.88 ERA in 21 starts, they switched him back to a reliever. In 231 relief appearances, he's posted a 2.85 ERA with 98 saves; overall, he's struck out 448 batters in 388.2 IP.
RP Jeff Innis - 4.6 bWAR, 10-20, 5 SV, 3.05 ERA, 1.272 WHIP, 360.0 IP (1987-1993). Jeff pitched all seven seasons of his MLB career with the New York Mets. A side-arming sinkerballer, "the I-Man" was known for his impressions of players and staff, including GM Frank Cashen. Maybe that's why the Mets declined to offer Innis a contract after the 1993 season. He signed with the Twins, and that spring training had the distinction of giving up the first professional base hit to a 31-year-old rookie named Michael Jordan. Jeff would stick around in the minors for a few more seasons, even working on a knuckleball, but never made it back to the bigs.
RP Gregory Infante - 1.0 bWAR, 3-2, 0 SV, 3.56 ERA, 1.332 WHIP, 68.1 IP (2010-2018). Infante was a baby -- ha, ha -- when he came up the first time in 2010, as a 22-year-old reliever with the White Sox. He pitched in five games without allowing a run and struck out five batters, though he did give up two hits and four walks in 4.2 innings. He would then spend the next eight seasons bouncing between organizations in the minors before finally returning to the bigs in 2017 with... the White Sox. So in nine years, he's pitched in 67 games, all with Chicago. Infante, now 30, signed with the Orioles last year but was released before the season started; the Venezuelan spent this off-season pitching in the Venezuelan Winter League.
RP Cole Irvin - -0.2 bWAR, 2-1, 1 SV, 5.83 ERA, 1.392 WHIP, 41.2 IP (2019). A 5th round pick by the Phillies in the 2016 draft, Swirvin Irvin went 6-1 with a 3.94 ERA in 16 starts and one relief appearance in Triple-A, then was promoted to the bigs where he had three starts and 13 relief appearances. The lefty was named the 2018 International League Pitcher of the Year after going 14-4 with a 2.57 ERA for the Lehigh Valley IronPigs.
RP Ryota Igarashi - -1.4 bWAR, 5-2, 0 SV, 6.41 ERA, 1.808 WHIP, 73.0 IP (2010-2012). Once renowned as one of the hardest throwers in Japan -- he struck out 97 batters in 78 innings in 2002 -- the New York Mets signed the 31-year-old reliever in 2010 but he struggled, giving up 24 runs, 29 hits, and 18 walks in 30.1 IP (but he did strike out 25 batters). The following year he gave up 20 runs on 43 hits and 28 walks in 38.2 IP (with 42 Ks), and the Mets released him. He signed with the Pirates, but was traded to the Blue Jays; they released him after two disastrous outings and the Yankees signed him, and they gave up on him after two more ugly appearances. Igarashi returned to Japan, where he's still pitching at age 41!
The I's who were... Ignored:
Here are the remaining 34 players whose last name starts with I. Some were fairly Impressive, others were Inferior.
Reliever Edgar Ibarra pitched in two games with the Angels in 2015, giving up one run on four hits and three walks while striking out three in four innings. The lefty has spent the last few seasons pitching winter ball in his native Venezuela.
Ham Iburg's real name was Herman; I don't know why they called him Ham. A San Francisco native who started and ended his career in the Pacific Coast League, Iburg had just one season in the bigs, going 11-18 with the 1902 Philadelphia Phillies; he was under contract to return in 1903, but he went back to California instead. The Pacific Coast League of that era offered better weather, easier travel, and sometimes better salaries than MLB, and many players like Iburg simply preferred playing on the west coast than in the Show.
Kei Igawa was a fading Japanese ace -- he even was briefly sent to the minors in 2005, and had become unpopular with fans -- but the Yankees needed an answer to the Red Sox signing Daisuke Matsuzaka two weeks earlier. After going 2-1 (with a 7.63 ERA) in his first six games, Igawa was sent to the minors; he'd return in June, get sent down again, and then be back in September. He'd end the year 2-3 with a 6.25 ERA. He would get bombed in two more appearances the following year, giving up six runs on 13 hits in just 4 innings, and would never resurface in MLB, despite posting adequate numbers in Triple-A (33-22, 3.81 ERA, 1.297 WHIP). After his release in 2011, Igawa returned to Japan, where he would pitch several more seasons with the Orix Buffaloes.
Gary Ignasiak is the big brother -- by 18 years! -- of pitcher Mike Ignasiak. Gary got into three games with the Tigers in 1973, striking out 4 batters in 4.2 innings but also giving up five hits and three walks. They sent him back to the minors but he never mastered his control, walking 647 batters in 825.0 minor league innings, and was out of pro baseball by the age of 25.
Reliever Blaise Ilsley made 10 appearances with the Cubs in 1994, giving up 13 runs on 25 hits and nine walks in 15.0 innings. Not surprisingly, the Cubs didn't bring him back. But he did have a long minor league career, and was later a pitching coach in the minors and a bullpen coach with the St. Louis Cardinals.
Doc Imlay had nine appearances for the Philadelphia Phillies in 1913, giving up 13 runs on 19 hits and seven walks in 13.2 innings. Imlay would then have a more successful career as a dentist in New Jersey.
Infielder Alexis Infante went 5-for-27 with the Blue Jays between 1987 and 1989, and 1-for-28 with the Braves in 1990. He would later be a manager in the Dominican Republic. The three Infantes in MLB history -- Alexis, Gregory, and Omar -- do not appear to be closely related, though all are from Venezuela.
Bob Ingersoll was a 31-year-old reliever who made four appearances with the Reds in 1914, giving up two runs on five hits and five walks in six innings.
A utilityman with the 1911 Boston Rustlers -- they wouldn't become the Braves until the following year -- Scotty Ingerton would get 521 AB while playing six different positions, hitting .250/.304/.340. After baseball, the former Rustler would become a deputy in Ohio.
A century later, another utilityman named Joe Inglett would play six positions (and pitch an inning!) across six seasons with the Indians, Blue Jays, Brewers, and Astros. Inglett would hit a respectable .283/.342/.392 in 808 career AB, but didn't get to the majors until he was 28 years old and never really got a chance; his best season was 2008, when he would hit .297/.355/.407 in 344 AB.
Charlie Ingraham caught one game for the Baltimore Orioles in 1883, going 1-for-4.
Utilityman Garey Ingram got into 82 games for the Dodgers between 1994 and 1997, going 37-for-142 (.261 BA). He played second, third, and outfield. He'd later be a coach in the minor leagues.
Mel Ingram -- apparently no relation to Garey -- had a "Moonlight Graham" MLB career, playing in MLB but never getting a plate appearance. He appeared in three games, all as a pinch runner, and scored a run for the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1929.
The third man with this last name, Ricardo Ingram, played in 12 games with the Tigers in 1994 and four with the Twins in 1995, going a combined total of 6-for-31 (.194). He would later be a minor league coach and manager, but tragically developed brain cancer and died in 2015 at the age of 48.
Brothers Dane Iorg and Garth Iorg played in the 1970s and 80s. Dane was a 1st round pick by the Philadelphia Phillies in 1971, but he didn't make it to the Show until 1977; then, after just 12 games, was traded to the St. Louis Cardinals for Bake McBride. A left-handed hitter, Dane was platooned throughout his career, hitting .284/.326/.387 in 1,502 AB vsR but just .200/.220/.276 in 145 AB vsL. Given his lack of power (14 career HR), speed (5 career SB), and defense (-3.1 career dWAR), it's surprising he had a 10-year MLB career. But he did win World Series rings with the '82 Cardinals and '85 Royals, going 12-for-23 (.522) with five doubles and a triple when it mattered most! Big brother Garth was originally drafted by the Yankees, but the Blue Jays took him in the 1976 expansion draft and he'd play his entire career as a utilityman for Toronto. After his MLB career ended, he would play in the short-lived Senior Professional Baseball Association, then would be a coach with the Brewers as well as a minor league manager. His sons Isaac, Eli, and Cale all played in the minors but never made the Show.
Happy Iott played in three games with the 1903 Cleveland Naps, going 2-for-10. A Maine native, the outfielder would later play in minor league and semipro teams in his home state.
Apparently no relation, Hooks Iott pitched in two games as a 21-year-old rookie with the St. Louis Browns in 1941, then in 24 games with the Browns and Giants in 1947... something must have happened in the middle... oh right, World War II. The lefty served in the U.S. Army Air Force during the war. He went 3-9 with a 7.05 ERA in 81.2 IP in his bifurcated MLB career, then would pitch into the late 1950s in the minors, including going 24-9 with a 1.83 ERA in 260.0 IP with the St. Petersburg Saints of the Florida International League in 1952.
Switch-hitting infielder Hal Irelan played just one season in the bigs, hitting .236 in 67 games with the Philadelphia Phillies in 1914. He would have a much longer career in the minors, still playing for Decatur in the, appropriately enough, Three-I League in 1926. He'd later be a minor league manager.
Another switch-hitting infielder came along in the early 1980s, Tim Ireland. He would go 1-for-7 in 11 games with the Royals scattered between 1981 and 1982. After a long career in the minors, Ireland would spend two seasons with the Hiroshima Toyo Carp, hitting .275 with 18 HR in 585 AB. Like many others on this list, he would later be a manager in the minors.
Venezuelan Hernan Iribarren hit .185 in 27 AB for the Brewers between 2008 and 2009; he returned to the majors in 2016 at the age of 32 and hit .311 in 45 AB for the Reds. A utilityman, Iribarren saw time first, second, third, and all three outfield positions.
A highly prized prospect at Ferrum Junior College, Daryl Irvine was selected in three different drafts -- in the 3rd round, in the 2nd round, and finally in the 1st round -- before signing with the Red Sox in 1985. He posted a 3.34 ERA in nine minor league seasons, but never mastered his control, with 291 walks in 711.2 minor league innings. In the bigs, he posted a 5.68 ERA and an unsightly 4.7 BB/9 (with just 3.8 K/9).
Bill Irwin somehow acquired the nickname Phil. He pitched in two games for the Cincinnati Red Stockings late in the 1886 season, giving up 19 runs (11 earned) on 18 hits and eight walks. Each was a complete game loss!
Third baseman Ed Irwin played in one game with the Detroit Tigers in 1912, going 2-for-3 -- and both hits were triples! How he came to play in one and only game is a tale in and of itself. Ty Cobb had been suspended indefinitely for one of his more infamous incidents -- he'd jumped into the stands to beat up a man who had no hands -- and Tiger players refused to take the field until he was reinstated, or at least given a punishment with an end date. Rather than forfeit the game, the Tigers recruited some local college and semipro players, including Irwin. They were crushed 24-2 by the A's. League President Ban Johnson then told the Tigers that he'd kick all of them out of baseball if they refused to play again, and the strike ended. Cobb was reinstated on May 26. As for Irwin, he was killed in a bar brawl four years later. It's believed he still has the record for "most triples by a player without another base hit."
The brother of Arthur Irwin, infielder John Irwin hit .246 in 1,269 career at-bats. It's said he owed at least some of those at-bats to the fact that big brother Arthur was his manager with the 1889 Washington Nationals and 1891 Boston Reds.
Phil Irwin had two starts in the bigs, one with the Pirates in 2013 and another with the Rangers in 2014; he gave up eight runs (seven earned) on 12 hits and six walks in 8.2 innings. In 2015, he pitched in the Korean League, going 1-7 with a 8.68 ERA.
Shortstop Tommy Irwin got into three games with the Cleveland Indians late in the 1938 season; he went 1-for-9. Later in life he'd be a scout for Cleveland.
The last of the Irwins is Walt Irwin, who got into four games as a pinch runner and pinch hitter for the 1921 St. Louis Cardinals; he struck out in his only at-bat.
Orlando Isales started his pro career at the tender age of 15. By the time he reached the bigs in 1980, he was a veteran... at the age of 20. He played in three games for the Phillies in 1980; he went 2-for-5 with a triple, a walk, and three RBIs (.400/.500/.800!). But he never got another chance; he was in Triple-A for a few more years, then left for the Mexican League.
Travis Ishikawa is best remembered for his walk-off home run off Michael Wacha in the 2014 NLCS to send the Giants to the World Series for the third time in five seasons. "Smoky" only topped 200 AB once in his career, and accumulated just 1.1 career bWAR, but Giant fans won't ever forget him. He would later be a hitting coach for the Giants in the Arizona Fall League.
Akinori Iwamura was a top performer for the Yakult Swallows, topping .300 BA/30 HR in three straight seasons prior to signing with the Tampa Bay Devil Rays in 2007. He hit a respectable .281/.354/.393 with the Rays over his first three MLB seasons, but cratered in 2010, hitting .182 with the Pirates and then .129 with the A's. After his release, the infielder would return to play in Japan for four more seasons.
Cuban-born catcher Hank Izquierdo went 7-for-26 in his only MLB season of 1967, playing for the Minnesota Twins. A lifer in the minor leagues, he didn't get the Call until he was 36 years old; his pro career started as a 20-year-old with Galveston in the Gulf Coast League in 1951, and ended with Veracruz in the Mexican League in 1974. He had 1,870 games in professional baseball, but only 16 in the bigs. He was later a minor league coach, a Mexican League manager, and a scout with the Minnesota Twins.
Another Cuban-born player, Hansel Izquierdo, defected when he was a teenager on the Cuban national junior team. He pitched in 20 games for the Florida Marlins in 2002, giving up 17 runs (15 earned) on 33 hits and 21 walks in 29.2 innings. He never resurfaced in the bigs, but he would pitch for 11 years in the minors, including stints with the White Sox, Expos, Yankees, and Pirates.
Cesar Izturis, Maicer's half-brother, played 13 years and accumulated 4,350 AB despite a career 64 OPS+, a testament to his glove. Over his career, the Venezuelan was 64 runs better than the average shortstop. Although his only All-Star selection came in 2005, his best year was the year before that, when he hit .288/.330/.381 in 670 AB, set career highs in nearly everything, and won a Gold Glove. His son, Cesar Izturis Jr., is a 20-year-old prospect in the Seattle Mariners system.
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2020.06.24 17:12 zink3ns [IWantOut] 24F USA -> Europe

I am a 24M living in the San Francisco Bay Area, working as a software engineer at a big tech company.
I hold a Korean passport and am living/working in the US on the basis of DACA (EAD for job). As I grow older I realize it is not possible to make long-term plans like buying a house or dating, since there's no direct path to get a greencard/citizenship. I thank the US for the free public education, university scholarship, and high salaries, but it's time for me to move on. I plan to transfer to an overseas office of my company and start the next chapter of my life. Yes i am aware of the 10-year (or more) reentry ban to the US, but I think that's better than living 10 years in limbo.
I plan to move in 2021. I am looking at Europe because I've always wanted to travel around there (irresponsible reason, I know) and my visa status in the US means I have never been able to travel overseas for leisure. It's also closer to Asia (parents moved back to Korea), so the flight isn't terribly long. And lastly, I'm not that interested in moving to Canada. I guess it would be the easiest solution, but there's no point in staying close to the US if I can't reenter for 10+ years.
So here are my options:
Zurich office:
Pros: largest engineering office in Europe (so there are many openings and it's relatively easy to transfer there), lots of interesting projects (not just consulting work that the smaller offices do). Also Swiss salary is highest in Europe I heard. And I don't have to pay US taxes.
Cons: A lot of people jump to the Zurich office for a few years and then come back to the US. Because they just use it to travel in Europe for a few years till the novelty wears off and then come back. But my purpose is to stay permanently, and so I think that will pose a problem. I read that permanent residence (C permit) in Switzerland comes after 10 years (longest in Europe?), and work permit is linked to the employer, which is risky in the off chance that I want to switch jobs, or get impacted by layoffs (I'm not sure if they happen in Europe though). And I would imagine citizenship is hard to get too.
Dublin office:
Pros: EU headquarters of my company, expanding office, they speak English. Relatively easier to get permanent residence (5 years, pretty standard for EU I think). All the threads I can find about getting citizenship have all been by random Americans tracing their lineage, so I'm not sure about the process for people with permanent residence.
Cons: boring projects (not in my field of interest), and lower pay than Zurich. Also hard to travel around
Munich office:
Pros: Seems same as Ireland in terms of permanent residence. Getting German citizenship means renouncing my current citizenship but I am fine with that. Pretty high pay (well lower than Zurich, and I heard Munich is expensive too)
Cons: projects are mildly interesting, but I think my company does not have a good relationship with the German government (e.g. German government blocked our product called Streetview) so I'm not sure how (if at all) that affects the existence of the office in the future.
Otherwise there are also offices in Stockholm, Aarhus, Paris, London, Moscow, Saint Ghislain, Krakow, and probably a few other places. But these offices are smaller, and harder to relocate to (fewer openings, and ). Also the projects are usually consulting and not engineering based, so I might need immediate local language fluency for the job, and I'm also not interested in consulting based work. But if there is any strong geographic advantage of any of these places that I'm not aware of, I am happy to take it into consideration :)
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2020.06.23 05:17 steroid_pc_principal An extractive summary of Bolton's new book

CHAPTER 1 THE LONG MARCH TO A WEST WING CORNER OFFICE
I knew senior Trump campaign officials like Steve Bannon, Dave Bossie, and Kellyanne Conway from prior associations, and had spoken to them about joining a Trump Administration should one happen. Among these possibilities (and others like Tennessee Senator Bob Corker and former Utah Governor Jon Huntsman), were there common, consistent attributes and accomplishments Trump sought? Obviously not, and observers should have asked: What is the real principle governing Trump’s personnel-selection process? Why not have Giuliani as Attorney General, a job he was made for? Romney as White House Chief of Staff, bringing his undeniable strategic planning and management skills? And Gingrich, with decades of creative theorizing, as White House domestic policy czar? Was Trump looking only for people from “central casting”? Much was made of his purported dislike of my moustache. ” Who knew Trump read so much history? Giuliani was later extremely gracious to me, saying after he withdrew from the Secretary of State melee, “John would probably be my choice. I arrived at Trump Tower the next day for my interview and waited in the Trump Organization lobby with a State Attorney General and a US Senator also waiting. I thought Trump listened carefully; he didn’t make or receive any phone calls, and we weren’t interrupted until Ivanka Trump came in to discuss family business, or perhaps try to get Trump vaguely back on schedule. I was describing why State needed a cultural revolution to be an effective instrument of policy when Trump asked, “Now, we’re discussing Secretary of State here, but would you consider the Deputy job?” I said I would not, explaining that State could not be run successfully from that level. ” Trump then said, “Not now, but at the right time and for the right position, I’m going to ask you to come into this Administration, and you’re going to agree, right?” I laughed, as did Trump and McMaster (although I felt somewhat uncomfortable on his behalf), and answered, “Sure,” figuring I had again dodged the bullet I had feared. ” Life at the White House developed its own rhythm, with Trump firing FBI Director James Comey later in May (at Kushner’s suggestion, according to Bannon), then meeting with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov (whom I had known for over twenty-five years at that point) and allegedly being less than cautious in discussing classified material, calling Comey a “nutjob,” according to the unbiased New York Times. ) I thought the Trump call had accomplished four things: (1) having the speech announce that the Iran deal was under continuous review and subject to US withdrawal at any time; (2) raising the connection between Iran and North Korea; (3) making it clear the Revolutionary Guard should be designated as a Foreign Terrorist Organization; and (4) getting a renewed commitment that I could see him without other approvals. Trump said to me, just as Kelly entered, “Did I ask for this meeting or did you?” I said I had, and he responded, “I thought I had, but I’m glad you came in because I wanted to see you.
CHAPTER 2 CRY “HAVOC!” AND LET SLIP THE DOGS OF WAR
Minutes later, he tweeted again: If President Obama had crossed his stated Red Line In The Sand, the Syrian disaster would have ended long ago! Animal Assad would have been history! These were clear, forceful statements, but Trump tweeted before consulting his national security team. While briefing Trump for a later call with President Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey, I stressed that we had the right formula: (1) a proposed three-way attack option with France and Britain, not just a unilateral US strike as in 2017; (2) a comprehensive approach, using political and economic as well as military means, combined with effective messaging to explain what we were doing and why; and (3) a sustained—not just a one-shot—effort. Trump wanted to withdraw most US troops from Syria and persuade Arab states to deploy more of their own forces there, as well as pay for the remaining US presence. With a full NSC meeting (the proper term only when the President chairs the meeting) coming that afternoon, I also told Trump we were essentially being sandbagged by Mattis on the range of target options. The Pentagon’s proposed response to Syria’s chemical-weapons attack was far weaker than it should have been, largely because Mattis had stacked the options presented to Trump in ways that left little real choice. Instead of three choices (light, medium, and heavy), Mattis and Dunford (who didn’t seem to be doing anything Mattis didn’t want, but who also didn’t seem very happy about the whole thing) presented five options. Had Trump insisted on one of the “riskier options,” several more days would have passed, and we were already close to one full week since Syria’s attack. Moreover, Mattis said without qualification that causing Russian casualties would mean we would be at war with Russia, notwithstanding our efforts to avoid such casualties and the Dunford-Gerasimov conversation. It was clear to me, however, that without something from the Arab nations, Trump would almost certainly withdraw the few remaining US forces in Syria, and sooner rather than later. Trump said he was thinking of tweeting that he had planned to attack but had called it off because there were no good targets anymore, although he would keep his “finger on the trigger. Trump then launched into possible Russian actions in retaliation for a Syria strike, such as sinking a US Navy vessel, which Mattis assured him was very unlikely, despite the presence of several Russian warships in the Eastern Mediterranean.
CHAPTER 3 AMERICA BREAKS FREE
Moreover, the US had just imposed substantial sanctions on Russia on April 6, as required by the “Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act,”2 which Trump detested because Russia was its target. After a difficult, sometimes testy, back-and-forth about the inevitable criticism from the High-Minded a withdrawal decision would cause, Pompeo said he would have State think more thoroughly about what would follow from our exit, something they had adamantly resisted doing thus far. ” Kelly had also told me that, in the course of the Pompeo negotiations, Paul said I was “the worst fucking decision” Trump had made. Looking at me, Trump said China was strictly enforcing sanctions against North Korea because they feared a trade war with us, which was only partially correct: In my view, China was not strictly enforcing sanctions. With the press cleared from the Oval, Trump and Macron spoke alone for much longer than expected, the bulk of which consisted, as Trump told me later, of his explaining to Macron that we were exiting the Iran deal. ”8 (Macron told Trump in a subsequent call that he was eager to rush to find a new deal, which didn’t produce any resonance from Trump. Briefing Netanyahu on his Iran thinking, Trump said that the whole deal was based on lies, Iran had played the United States for fools, and that Israel should feel free to flay the deal publicly, which of course Netanyahu was already busily doing. Trump said he would be making a statement on Iran shortly and asked, in an almost childlike way, if Xi wanted to know what he would say. Macron called and asked what Trump planned to say on Iran, but Trump wanted to be sure Macron would be circumspect. Trump mused that at some point he should meet with Iranian President Rouhani, flattering Macron as the best of the Europeans, and that he should tell Rouhani Trump was right. He said Russia, China, and North Korea were bigger threats, although his reasons were vague, and I was pleased to see Pompeo and Mnuchin both push back, given that Iran was one of the top four threats identified in the National Security Strategy Trump had approved before my arrival.
CHAPTER 4 THE SINGAPORE SLING
A few minutes after Trump made those remarks, the Vice President gave me a high five and said, “He’s got your back!” Trump himself said, “You’re clear, I fixed it!” There were also significant developments on the hostage front, where we were getting increasing indications that North Korea would release three US prisoners if Pompeo personally flew to the North to receive them and return them to America. Meanwhile, Trump was busy tweeting there was no division on his team: Unlike what the Failing and Corrupt New York Times would like people to believe, there is ZERO disagreement within the Trump Administration as to how to deal with North Korea… and if there was, it wouldn’t matter. Pompeo then told me Trump wanted to bring Kim Yong Chol to meet in the Oval Office, which Trump thought was “genius. I could tell from both Pence and Ayers that they were somewhat in shock, and Ayers said Trump wanted “to keep the meeting small”; it would just be Trump, Pompeo, and the interpreter on the US side, and Kim and his interpreter on theirs. Trump and Pompeo emerged from the Oval with Kim Yong Chol and walked him to the driveway where his cars were waiting, and then Trump spoke to the press on his way back to the Oval. Kelly said to me while Trump did a meet-and-greet with the Singapore US embassy staff, “The psychology here is that Trump wants to walk out in order to preempt Kim Jong Un. Trump complained that Kim Jong Un had been meeting with China and Russia to put us at a disadvantage, but he said Singapore would “be a success no matter what,” saying, “We just need to put on more sanctions, including on China for opening up the border. Trump was happy there would be no more war games and said he was glad he had been “overruled” in his previous efforts to cancel them because otherwise, he “wouldn’t have had something to give away!” Trump also said Kim Jong Un “has a vicious streak in him,” and that he could be “mercurial,” remembering an irritated look Kim Jong Un shot at one of his officials during the talks. When I showed Trump Kim Jong Un’s letter and explained our recommendation, however, Trump said immediately, “I should meet with Kim Jong Un. Despite plans for another Pompeo trip to North Korea, at the end of August, just before he was due to depart for Pyongyang, the North Koreans warned that Pompeo would not see Kim Jong Un on this trip, and shouldn’t even bother coming unless he was bringing completely new proposals, including the end-of-war declaration.
CHAPTER 5 A TALE OF THREE CITIES—SUMMITS IN BRUSSELS, LONDON, AND HELSINKI
Coming a month after June’s Singapore encounter with Kim Jong Un were three back-to-back July summits: a long-scheduled NATO meeting in Brussels with our partners in America’s most important alliance; Trump and Theresa May in London, a “special relationship” bilateral; and Trump and Putin in Helsinki, neutral ground to meet with our once and current adversary Russia. On Syria, Putin asked, regarding our desire to see Iranian forces withdraw, who would accomplish that? This was one of those moments where Putin pointed at me and said I should tell Trump directly that the Russians didn’t need Iranians in Syria, and that there was no advantage for Russia in having them there. As we met in the Oval beforehand, Trump said he would tell Stoltenberg the US was going to lower its “contribution” to NATO to Germany’s level and ask him to inform the other members before the July 11–12 summit. Trump conceded that Stoltenberg regularly gave him credit for his efforts to increase NATO spending by the European allies, but argued that the only reason expenditures had increased was because the allies thought Trump would otherwise withdraw the United States from NATO. A few minutes later, Merkel came over to speak with Trump at his seat, suggesting that Stoltenberg convene an informal “roundtable” where everyone would have a chance to react to what Trump had said. How could we defend ourselves from the Russians, Trump wondered, if the allies wouldn’t pay for it? Trump said he liked Hungary and Italy, but it wasn’t fair to the United States that they weren’t paying their allocated share. She stressed to Trump that, in Helsinki, he should go into the meeting from a position of strength, and Trump agreed, claiming that Putin asked for the meeting (the opposite of the truth), and assured her he would not give anything away. In fact, the US interpreter told Fiona Hill and Joe Wang later that Putin had talked for 90 percent of the time (excluding translation); she also said Trump had told her not to take any notes, so she could only debrief us from her unaided memory. Trump also said Putin didn’t seem to care much one way or the other about our leaving the Iran nuclear deal, although he did say Russia would stay in. Trump asked Putin to describe the one-on-one, and Putin said Trump had first raised the election-interference issue, and then said he hoped we could provide a common explanation of the matter (whatever that meant). A US reporter asked Putin why Americans should believe his denials of interference in our 2016 election, and Putin answered, “Where do you get this idea that President Trump trusts me or I trust him? He defends the interests of the United States of America, and I do defend the interests of the Russian Federation… Can you name a single fact that would definitively prove the collusion? This is utter nonsense.
CHAPTER 6 THWARTING RUSSIA
I wanted to launch US withdrawal from the treaty (which would be an important signal to China, among others), or possibly even mutual withdrawal, before my next meeting with Patrushev, in Moscow, in late October. ” None of us believed there was moral equivalence, and notwithstanding Mattis’s point, mutual withdrawal would give Trump something he could announce as a “success” with Russia, perhaps thereby reducing the pressure to make real concessions in other areas. On October 17, before my meeting with Patrushev in Moscow the following week, I briefed Trump on where things stood, including all the interagency work we had done, our preliminary diplomacy with NATO allies and others, and our likely schedule for withdrawal, kicked off on December 4 by Pompeo’s giving Russia notice to resume compliance or else. I explained that once we announced our intention to withdraw, the Russians would likely do the same, accusing us of violating the treaty, which was untrue but which could involve us in a series of recriminatory statements between Moscow and Washington. Instead, I suggested, why didn’t I ask Patrushev that the two countries withdraw mutually; this approach could spare us a lot of grief and allow us to announce an agreement with Russia on something of importance. I then called Pompeo, who said it was “horrific” Trump could make an announcement as significant as withdrawing from the INF just in response to a reporter’s question, a rare occasion of Pompeo’s being explicitly critical of something Trump did. We discussed our respective positions on the INF at length, but what really interested Putin was “What comes next?,” meaning what were we contemplating regarding deployment in Europe? Having made the point earlier that Russia and America were effectively the only two countries bound by the INF, I replied that I thought Putin had said at our last meeting that Russia understood the strategic implications of that fact, meaning China’s large and growing ballistic and hypersonic glide missile capabilities. Why go through the agony of renegotiating New START, adding, for example, reductions or limitations on tactical nuclear weapons, which were of major importance to the US given the large number of such weapons Russia had?5 In response to Putin’s questions, I said we had no intention of withdrawing from New START, but we were also essentially certain not to allow it simply to be extended for five years as Russia was asking (along with almost all Senate Democrats). ” I then pressed him to announce simultaneously the suspension of our treaty obligations because of Russia’s material breach, a concept separate from withdrawal, which would allow us to begin “violating” the treaty even as the 180-day clock was ticking, and Trump agreed. Trump said he didn’t want to look weak to Russia, and Merkel promised she would back us if we gave her sixty days. The Trump Administration had imposed substantial new economic sanctions on Russian citizens and entities in 2017, related to the Crimea annexation, adding to what Obama had done, as well as extending other sanctions; closed the Russian consulates in San Francisco and Seattle; expelled more than sixty Russian intelligence agents (operating in the US as “diplomats”) after Moscow’s attack on the Skripals;20 imposed sanctions for violating the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act, also required by the attack on the Skripals; sanctioned Russia’s Internet Research Agency, an arm of Russia’s cyber-offense machinery; and penalized over three dozen Russian officials for violations of US Syria-related sanctions.
CHAPTER 7 TRUMP HEADS FOR THE DOOR IN SYRIA AND AFGHANISTAN, AND CAN’T FIND IT
What Trump wanted, however, was very limited: when would Brunson be released to return to America, which he thought Erdogan had pledged? Erdogan said only that the Turkish judicial process was continuing, and Brunson was no longer imprisoned, but under house arrest in Izmir, Turkey. Trump allowed the negotiations to continue, but his instinct on Erdogan proved correct: only economic and political pressure would get Brunson released, and here at least Trump had no problem applying it despite Mnuchin’s happy talk. Trump said he was ready to leave Syria if Turkey wanted to handle the rest of ISIS; Turkey could do the rest and we would just get out. Trump said he would ask me (I was listening in to the call, as was customary) to immediately work on a plan for US withdrawal, with Turkey taking over the fight against ISIS. Over the weekend, Trump decided he wanted another call with Erdogan to make two points: first, don’t attack any US troops in Syria, and second, be sure to attack ISIS and not Kurds, both points being correct, but it was a little late to fill them in after his earlier call with Erdogan and the subsequent publicity. 17 So after greetings and opening remarks, Trump said that, first, he wanted Erdogan to get rid of ISIS, and that we would provide assistance if Turkey need it. ” Trump said he had told Erdogan not to attack US forces in Syria, and LaCamera and Caine were explaining what they were currently doing against ISIS when Trump asked, “Can you knock the shit out of them on the way out?” They both responded, “Yes, sir,” and Trump said, “That is my order; take it out from here. The US would continue to provide air cover and search-and-rescue capabilities for the international force, which Dunford and I believed would also allow us to keep control of the airspace over northeastern Syria. Did Mattis in particular want a flat-out Trump decision to withdraw, so Mattis could then resign on a matter of principle? Or was this an institutional Pentagon effort to have Trump be squarely responsible, not US failings during the course of the war, and especially not the collapse of the beloved counterinsurgency strategy that had failed in both Afghanistan and Iraq? Pompeo agreed with me that the briefing should have been held later in November, but we couldn’t stop it. ” Then Trump raised the first combat use of the MOAB (“Massive Ordnance Air Blast”), “without your knowledge,” said Trump to Mattis,30 complaining for the umpteenth time that the MOAB had not had its intended effect. 32 At my regular breakfast with Mattis and Pompeo, this one on Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, I suggested we seek to answer three questions: Would the Afghan government collapse after we left, and, if so, how fast? How fast and in what ways would ISIS, al-Qaeda, and other terrorist groups react to withdrawal? And how fast could the various terrorist groups mount attacks on the United States? We scheduled another Oval Office meeting for Monday, and Mattis had barely begun before Trump was all over him.
CHAPTER 8 CHAOS AS A WAY OF LIFE
Kelly said that by mid to late July he thought he had gotten Trump off the idea of taking away people’s clearances, but Trump returned to it because his favorite media sources kept pounding away on it. Kelly opened the weekly White House staff meeting on August 27 by saying, “I’m in a bad place today,” because of ongoing disagreements with Trump over whether to fly US government flags at half-mast and who would attend which services. “What about Bolton?” Trump asked, “Could he take it over?” Kushner said he doubted I would be interested, but Trump replied, “John’s great. Can you ask him if he’d do it?” Kushner said whomever Trump selected would be in a fight with Kelly, and Trump replied, “John’s not afraid of fights. We needed to find a way out of this train wreck before Trump blamed us for the collapse of his border policy! According to Kushner, however, this latest encounter with Nielsen convinced Trump I should have control of the issue. “How else are we going to stop the caravans?” “Kirstjen Nielsen is working on this,” said Kelly, still loudly, and Trump shot back, “None of you other geniuses have been able to stop the caravans,” at which point Kelly stomped out of the Oval, Trump waving his hand dismissively at Kelly’s back as he left. (In a December conversation with Trump as he decided on Kelly’s successor, Trump acknowledged that this exchange with Kelly was the “shouting match” about which the press had spilled so many electrons. ” Personnel management issues, also critical to policy development, portended a series of dramatic changes following the November 2018 congressional elections. ” One story I was sure the media hadn’t heard from Mattis was one told by Trump on May 25, as Marine One flew back to the White House from Annapolis after Trump’s graduation speech to the Naval Academy. In an October 2019 interview, in the midst of the Ukraine impeachment crisis, Kelly said he had told Trump, “Whatever you do—and we were still in the process of trying to find someone to take my place—I said whatever you do, don’t hire a ‘yes man,’ someone who won’t tell you the truth—don’t do that. ”7 Trump flatly denied Kelly had made such a statement: “John Kelly never said that, he never said anything like that.
CHAPTER 9 VENEZUELA LIBRE
Under the vacancy clause of Hugo Chavez’s own Constitution, Guaidó said he would become Interim President on January 23, which was the anniversary of the 1958 military coup that overthrew the Marcos Perez Jimenez dictatorship, and oust Maduro to prepare new elections. ” I walked Trump back off the ledge, explaining that the military was still in its barracks, which was very significant, and that senior military figures had been talking to the Opposition for two days about what would be in it for them if they came over to the Opposition or retired. Trump then assured Guaidó he’d pull off Maduro’s overthrow, and offered as an aside that he was sure Guaidó would remember in the future what had happened, which was Trump’s way of referring to his interest in Venezuela’s oil fields. A drumbeat of diplomatic recognitions of Guaidó was picking up and we hoped it would demonstrate even to Maduro loyalists that his days were numbered, and also provide insurance against arrest for Guaidó and other Opposition leaders. 30 There were also hopes that key military officials would not follow orders to close the borders, but that, even if they did, Maduro would be placed in the impossible position of denying humanitarian supplies to his impoverished citizens. Trump asked the Colombians if he should have talked to Maduro six months earlier, and Duque said unequivocally it would have been a big victory for Maduro, implying it would be an even bigger mistake to talk to him now. It could swing from one extreme to another: things could go well, with the border effectively opened, which would be a direct challenge to Maduro’s authority, or there could be violence and bloodshed at the crossing points, potentially with Guaidó arrested or worse. Such actions would likely get little public attention but would be powerful messages to regime officials that we were prepared to ease their paths either out of Venezuela entirely or into the arms of the Opposition as co-conspirators rather than prisoners. 52 If Venezuela’s top court, packed by Maduro cronies and hacks, and led by one of his nominally strongest supporters, delegitimized Maduro’s sham legislature, it would dramatically undercut Maduro across the board in Venezuela. 55 Talks with several senior Venezuelan military leaders, including Defense Minister Padrino, were becoming increasingly operational: not about whether Maduro would be ousted but about how it would happen. I understood the tentative sequence was that the supreme court would declare the Constituent Assembly illegal; Maduro would then resign; the military would recognize Guaidó as Interim President; the National Assembly would be recognized as Venezuela’s only legitimate legislature; and the supreme court would remain in place.
CHAPTER 10 THUNDER OUT OF CHINA
By the time I joined the White House, trade discussions of all sorts with China had been under way for some time. Commerce Department has been instructed to get it done! When had we started to worry about jobs in China? On Monday, I heard Navarro was trying to get a miscellaneous group of people into the Oval to tell Trump what a bad idea backtracking on ZTE was. ” That didn’t necessarily mean the United States Trade Representative would resume its traditional role as primary negotiator, because Trump also lashed out at Lighthizer: “You haven’t made one deal yet!” What did process matter anyway when Trump tweeted on his own, as he did on May 14: ZTE, the large Chinese phone company, buys a big percentage of individual parts from U. On the other hand, Trump came increasingly to view China as trying to influence the 2018 congressional elections against Republicans, and more important (to him), as working for his defeat in 2020. Toward the end of the trade issue, Trump proposed that for the remaining $350 billion of trade imbalances (by Trump’s arithmetic), the US would not impose tariffs, but he again returned to importuning Xi and China to buy as many American farm products as they could. ” Lighthizer for some reason worried that our trade war with China was hurting Europe, which only added fuel to the fire, provoking the familiar Trump refrain, “The EU is worse than China, only smaller,” as he decided to impose the next round of tariffs on Beijing, via Twitter, of course: Our representatives have just returned from China where they had constructive talks having to do with a future Trade Deal. Additionally, my friend President Xi said that he would stop the sale of Fentanyl to the United States—this never happened, and many Americans continue to die! Trade talks are continuing, and… …during the talks the U. This does not include the 250 Billion Dollars already Tariffed at 25%… …We look forward to continuing our positive dialogue with China on a comprehensive Trade Deal, and feel that the future between our two countries will be a very bright one! This was a huge decision, causing great angst in Trump’s economic team, which was pretty much where things stood when I resigned on September 10. Former Vice President Dan Quayle told me as far back as October 2018, after a trip to Hong Kong, that China had become increasingly aggressive, kidnapping from Hong Kong businessmen who had somehow crossed Beijing, many of whom were simply never heard from again. ” On August 13, after our discussion on F-16 sales to Taiwan (see below), Trump tweeted again: I know President Xi of China very well. Trump was particularly dyspeptic about Taiwan, having listened to Wall Street financiers who had gotten rich off mainland China investments.
CHAPTER 11 CHECKING INTO THE HANOI HILTON, THEN CHECKING OUT, AND THE PANMUNJOM PLAYTIME
Nonetheless, he saw no real Trump commitments, and at the end, Trump said he couldn’t lift sanctions until North Korea denuclearized, or he would look like a fool, which was true, and it was good Trump still remembered it. ” After Hanoi, we learned from press sources such as South Korea’s Chosun Ilbo that Kim Yong Chol had endured forced labor, although he was later rehabilitated; that Kim Hyok Chol, Biegun’s counterpart, had been executed, along with several others; that, in penance, Kim Jong Un’s sister had receded from public view for a time; and that Shin Hye Yong, Kim’s interpreter, was in a political prison camp for making an interpretation mistake. Trump pressed again, wondering what would happen if we had to fight North Korea, and whether South Korea would accept Japanese participation. Unfortunately, North Korea continued testing missiles, not the ICBMs Kim had promised Trump he would not test, but short- and medium-range missiles that threatened much of South Korea and Japan. As Moon rambled on about Kim Jong Un’s dissatisfaction with the joint US–South Korea military exercises, Trump observed that Moon seemed to have lost his relationship with Kim, who was now not traveling to South Korea as once envisaged. 14 Trump answered by saying that he would surprise Moon by giving his complete blessing to releasing the aid through the UN agencies, and asked Moon to let North Korea know that he had suggested it to him. , Abe and Trump had a joint press conference, with Trump saying again he was not worried by North Korea’s missile launches and Abe saying publicly, with Trump standing beside him, that he believed they had violated Security Council resolutions. The press just loved the split, but more important, it showed to North Korea that despite the efforts under way all day to show the solidarity of the US-Japan alliance, it was clear Abe and Trump had different views on North Korea. Trump said that in his bilateral meeting, he would stress the aid that the South was providing, and would tell Moon everything that happened between him and Kim. Moreover, high on Trump’s priority list for a successful North Korea nuclear deal was his insistence that Japan and South Korea pay a big part of the economic costs; Trump wasn’t giving the North any “foreign aid,” only the prospect of large, profitable private investment. Taking advantage of US election-year politics, will he try to entice Trump into a bad deal, the kind of approach that led Trump’s predecessors into major mistakes? Or will he conclude that no deal with Trump is possible and that he would be better served waiting to see whether a pliant Democrat with even less foreign-policy experience than Trump emerges as President? Whatever the answer, North Korea’s trajectory toward being a fully capable nuclear-weapons state will continue.
CHAPTER 12 TRUMP LOSES HIS WAY, AND THEN HIS NERVE
Pompeo briefed Trump on his recent visit to Iraq, which inevitably kick-started Trump into enumerating the Bush 43 Administration’s errors: “Worst President we ever had,” said Trump. ) After the Lincoln reverie, Trump moved to a short-form version of the soliloquy on John Kerry and the Logan Act: “The Iranians aren’t talking only because of John Kerry,” he mused, but Shanahan, seeing how successful Haspel had been by just ignoring Trump and interrupting, resumed talking about more boring things like risk, cost, and timing regarding the various options we might consider, including the use of force. They said publicly they knew Trump wanted to talk but was being frustrated by advisors like me, or that Trump wanted peace but his advisors wanted war. Although Trump hadn’t told me at the time, he had asked Abe to get involved between Iran and the US, and Abe had taken the request seriously. Would we be ready to alleviate the sanctions? And what would we want from Iran? Reducing its military activities in Syria and Yemen? After explaining again the effects on Iran of America’s reimposition of sanctions, Trump went after Kerry for violating the Logan Act and convincing Iran not to negotiate. government that Iran is responsible for today’s attacks in the Gulf of Oman…” On Friday morning, Abe gave Trump a personal readout of his trip, saying that he had seen no willingness from either Rouhani or Khamenei to have a dialogue with the United States as long as the economic sanctions remained in place. ” There were three significant aspects about the decision just reached: (1) we were hitting functioning military targets, as explained above, not merely symbolic ones; (2) we were hitting inside Iran, crossing an Iranian red line, and were certainly going to test their repeated assertions that such an attack would be met by a full-scale response; and (3) we were hitting targets likely entailing casualties, which question we had confronted, Trump having heard that the attacks he had ordered meant dead Iranians (and, possibly, dead Russians). Iran can NEVER have Nuclear Weapons, not against the USA, and not against the WORLD I suppose I really thought, “If he wants to put something out that foolish, who am I to object?” I believed Trump would own it so totally after those tweets that perhaps people would understand how idiosyncratic the whole thing had been. As for the two remaining sites, Dunford said they assessed that it would be fifty people per site “max” and tried to explain to Trump why, in the middle of the night Iran time, the numbers at the site were likely to be far smaller. After a Trump discourse on Kerry and the Logan Act, Macron asked directly what Trump would be willing to give up, thereby precisely demonstrating his mentality to make concessions to Iran without getting anything in return. Although Trump first ducked, they did discuss before the call ended the idea of a significant reduction in the oil and financial sanctions against Iran for a brief period, and Trump seemed to be clearly leaning in that direction.
CHAPTER 13 FROM THE AFGHANISTAN COUNTERTERRORISM MISSION TO THE CAMP DAVID NEAR MISS
Curiously, Pompeo had John Sullivan attend in his stead; perhaps he didn’t want to reveal what the actual state of play in diplomacy with the Taliban was before the Trump briefing, which would be consistent with his practice of sharing as little about the negotiations as he could. Within thirty minutes of the breakfast, I called Trump and said it was his decision whether to let Khalilzad and the State Department act with complete independence in the negotiations, but I thought it was dangerous for what Trump said he wanted. Specifically, while his instructions from Trump (or Pompeo, whomever) at that time were to get US forces to zero, he also had instructions from Trump to support counterterrorism capabilities consistent with what had been previously briefed to Trump in the Tank, essentially without an end date. Completely predictably, Trump asked, “Who pays them?” Esper, new to this movie script, promptly responded, “We do,” thereby launching Trump into the riff about how Mattis always said, “These soldiers are fighting bravely for their country,” until Trump asked who paid for them, and found out the total cost (including equipment and other supplies) was about $6. Pompeo tried to keep the whole thing between himself, Khalilzad, and Trump (although, as the meeting started, Trump said it had been a long time since he had seen Khalilzad). Why, I asked, given that we all knew the political risks on this deal were from most Republicans, let alone Democrats, didn’t Pompeo want allies? If he wanted all the credit for it, I could understand that, but there would be precious little “credit” when the agreement collapsed, which even Pompeo told me he thought was inevitable. We could repeat the phrase “conditions based” all we wanted, but in reality, this agreement would be regarded as pulling up stakes and getting out (which Trump probably would have preferred, even though none of the rest of us did), with all the attendant chaos that would likely follow. As to whether the military could live without the “protection” of a deal, Pompeo said he thought the US commander would prefer a deal but could live with it either way. “Hey, John,” Trump said to the screen in the Sit Room, “what do you think?” My instinct was that this meeting could stop the pending deal dead in its tracks while the Taliban and the Afghan government wrestled with its implications, or at least delay it for a significant-enough period because of the time it would take for the Afghan parties to figure out their positions. Pence asked, “Would you meet with Ghani first?” “Only if Ghani knows I’m also going to sit down with the Taliban later,” said Trump. Pompeo and I spoke after he was back at the State Department to see if his understanding was the same as mine, that not only the Taliban but also the Ghani meeting was canceled, and he agreed that’s what he’d heard Trump say.
CHAPTER 14 THE END OF THE IDYLL
Pompeo wanted a conference call with her and me to get everyone on the same page, but before the call could be arranged, Trump called Pompeo to say Haley’s talking points were fine and that he didn’t want to be hammered in the press for being too soft. Trump said he thought it would be terrible to meet with Putin in these circumstances, and that the press would only talk about the Ukraine issue. Trump called again to say he would do the bilateral if Putin would announce, when it ended, that he was releasing the ships and crews, thus in effect giving Trump credit for springing them. I said I would speak to Trump and see whether there would still be a bilateral meeting. The Russians didn’t put anything about the meeting in their press, and Trump related to me the next morning he had essentially told Putin he didn’t see how the two of them could meet at any length until the Kerch Strait incident was resolved and the ships and crews returned to Ukraine, which didn’t seem likely for some time. I briefed Trump in advance of the call that Zelensky might invite him to his inauguration (the date for which had not yet been officially set), and Trump said he would send Pence instead. ” Zelensky did invite Trump to his inaugural, and Trump responded he would “look at the date” and said, “We’ll get you a great representative for the United States on the great day. ” Zelensky then invited Trump to Ukraine, noting both would be in Warsaw on September 1 for the eightieth anniversary of Germany’s invasion of Poland, launching World War II, suggesting Trump could then come to Kiev, which Trump politely discouraged. With time drawing short, I suggested to Pompeo and Esper that I again see how Trump was leaning, and the three of us then coordinate our schedules to talk to Trump together, with which they agreed. ” Pence also pressed Trump to meet Zelensky at the UN General Assembly and said that “just between us girls,” he thought Trump was looking for a news peg to make what we hoped was the right decision. In light of the subsequent controversy, I should note that on Tuesday, Kupperman told me that Dan Walsh, one of Mulvaney’s deputies, had called him late Monday, returning with Trump on Air Force One from a North Carolina political rally Trump had departed for right after speaking with me.
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2020.05.19 05:55 B4CQN Abandoning Mac for PC

What will you be doing with this PC? Be as specific as possible, and include specific games or programs you will be using.
Gaming... current favorites are: CS:GO, Apex, Rust, League of Legends, GTA, and more to come. I've only ever really owned a mac, finally getting a PC.
I'll also be using it for work, using most Adobe programs (Photoshop, Illustrator, After Effects, Indesign, etc.)

What is your maximum budget before rebates/shipping/taxes?
$2,000.00 tops, I'd prefer to spend closer to $1,500.00 though.

When do you plan on building/buying the PC? Note: beyond a week or two from today means any build you receive will be out of date when you want to buy.*\*
I'd buy it tonight if I knew what I was doing.

What, exactly, do you need included in the budget? (ToweOS/monitokeyboard/mouse/etc\)
I'm only looking to purchase a PC/tower at this time, not worried about extra monitors or other hardware.

Which country (and state/province) will you be purchasing the parts in? If you're in US, do you have access to a Microcenter location?
San Francisco, CA (Never heard of a Microcenter, doesn't look like I'm near one when I looked them up.)

If reusing any parts (including monitor(s)/keyboard/mouse/etc), what parts will you be reusing? Brands and models are appreciated.
Keyboard: SteelSeries APEX M800
Mouse: SteelSeries Rival 700
Display: ASUS Designo Curved MX34VQ 34”

Will you be overclocking? If yes, are you interested in overclocking right away, or down the line? CPU and/or GPU?
Probably not, PC newb here I come from the land of Macintosh.

Are there any specific features or items you want/need in the build? (ex: SSD, large amount of storage or a RAID setup, CUDA or OpenCL support, etc)
From what I've read... I like SSD, Liquid Cooler, full size ATX motherboard, and a big bad case.

Do you have any specific case preferences (Size like ITX/microATX/mid-towefull-tower, styles, colors, window or not, LED lighting, etc), or a particular color theme preference for the components?
Window, LED is sexy but if I save decent money not being fancy I'm okay without it, overall I care more about how it runs than what it looks like honestly.

Do you need a copy of Windows included in the budget? If you do need one included, do you have a preference?
I don't, and I think Windows 10 PRO 64 bit.

Extra info or particulars:
I've been reading into guides and how to build your first PC but a lot of it looks like Korean to me. I started a build on Newegg but I'm worried I'll pick something stupid that doesn't work with something else, check it out: https://newegg.io/fc414d7
CPU: AMD RYZEN 5 3600X 6-Core 3.8 GHz (4.4 GHz Max Boost) Socket AM4 95W 100-100000022BOX Desktop Processor ~ $204.99
Motherboard: MSI MPG X570 GAMING PLUS Gaming Motherboard AMD AM4 SATA 6Gb/s M.2 USB 3.2 Gen 2 HDMI ATXOUT OF STOCK ~ $169.99
Memory: G.SKILL Ripjaws V Series 32GB (2 x 16GB) 288-Pin DDR4 SDRAM DDR4 3200 (PC4 25600) Desktop Memory Model F4-3200C16D-32GVK ~$129.49
Video Cards: EVGA GeForce RTX 2060 KO ULTRA GAMING Video Card, 06G-P4-2068-KR, 6GB GDDR6, Dual Fans, Metal Backplate ~ $319.99
Case: Thermaltake View 71 4-Sided Tempered Glass Vertical GPU Modular SPCC E-ATX Gaming Full Tower Computer Case with 2 Blue LED Ring Fan Pre-installed CA-1I7-00F1WN-00 ~ $156.99
Power Supply: CORSAIR RM Series RM850 CP-9020196-NA 850W ATX12V / EPS12V SLI Ready CrossFire Ready 80 PLUS GOLD Certified Full Modular Power Supply ~ $134.94
Storage: SAMSUNG 860 EVO Series 2.5" 1TB SATA III V-NAND 3-bit MLC Internal Solid State Drive (SSD) MZ-76E1T0B/AM ~ $299.98 (x2 @ $149.99 ea.)
CPU Cooler: EVGA CLC 240mm All-In-One RGB LED CPU Liquid Cooler, 2x FX12 120mm PWM Fans, Intel, AMD, 400-HY-CL24-V1 ~ $119.99
Operating System: Windows 10 Pro 32-bit/64-bit ~ $159.99

I really appreciate your help, I'm sure looking over this crap is tedious and you have better shit to do.
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2020.05.01 15:13 rusticgorilla Coronavirus response: Trump denies funeral aid as minority communities suffer without tests & treatment

Welcome, dear readers, to my coronavirus roundup. I'm posting these every Friday in addition to Lost in the Sauce on Mondays (for non-coronavirus news).
Title refers to the sections "Minorities and low-income communities" and "Trump sits on funeral aid"
TLDR pinned at top of comments
Housekeeping:

Intelligence warnings

More than a dozen issues of the President’s Daily Brief (PDB) in January and February contained warnings about the novel coronavirus, its spread, and the suppression of information in China. During this period, Trump downplayed the virus and insisted it was under control.
U.S. officials emphasized that the PDB references to the virus included comprehensive articles on aspects of the global outbreak, but also smaller digest items meant to keep Trump and senior administration officials updated on the course of the contagion… One official said that by mid- to late January the coronavirus was being mentioned more frequently, either as one of the report’s core articles or in what is known as an “executive update,” and that it was almost certainly called to Trump’s attention orally.

Part of a pattern

The president did not take the warnings seriously, if he noticed them at all: Trump “routinely skips reading the PDB and has at times shown little patience for even the oral summary he takes two or three times per week.”
According to then-CIA Director Mike Pompeo in 2017, Trump prefers “killer graphics” in his briefings and doesn’t want too many details so intelligence officials try to “get to the core of the issue quickly.” A year later, in 2018, the Washington Post reported that even the simplified briefings were too much of a hassle for Trump:
Trump has opted to rely on an oral briefing of select intelligence issues in the Oval Office rather than getting the full written document delivered to review separately each day...Reading the traditionally dense intelligence book is not Trump’s preferred “style of learning” ...After several months, Trump made clear he was not interested in reviewing a personal copy of the written intelligence report known as the PDB
Critically, years ago intelligence officials warned that “by not reading the daily briefing, the president could hamper his ability to respond to crises in the most effective manner.” Trump’s handling of the pandemic proves that his inability or refusal to pay attention to the intelligence briefings has harmed our country, leading to tens of thousands of deaths that could have been prevented with a faster response.

Trump blames Pelosi?

ABC News reporter Jon Karl asked Trump about the report, to which Trump responded by repeating a fake story about House Speaker Nancy Pelosi:
Karl: “Were you warned about coronavirus back in January?”
Trump: “I think probably a lot more than the Democrats because a month later, Nancy Pelosi was saying, 'Let's dance in the streets of Chinatown.” (video)
Trump then lied about Dr. Fauci saying the virus “was no problem” in late February - Fauci did not say that - and pivoted to talking about the restrictions he placed on travel from China. Karl pressed him again on when he received warnings in his briefings and Trump said: “I would have to check, I want to look as to the exact dates of warnings.”
Trump has repeatedly lied about Pelosi’s February trip to Chinatown in San Francisco. Before any shelter-in-place orders were issued, tourism in the area had fallen dramatically amid public fears of a Chinese virus and prejudice against Asian Americans.
Pelosi while in Chinatown on Feb. 24: “I do think that because it started in China, there’s a concern that are the — is the Chinese government doing what it needed to do early enough, and now as we go forward. But that should not be carried over to Chinatown and San Francisco.”
She did not “dance in the streets” or propose a parade, as Trump has previously claimed. In hindsight, Chinatown was exceptionally well-prepared to handle the coronavirus: According to the New York Times, the community put in a place a plan of action on Feb. 1 “emphasizing frequent hand-cleaning, availability of sanitizers and education on basic hygiene principles, including frequent use of masks.” Trump, on the other hand, did not address the need for such measures until mid-March.

Man-made virus conspiracy

Last Friday, the Trump administration abruptly cut off funding for a project studying the transmission of coronaviruses from bats to humans after conspiracy theories linked the work to a lab in Wuhan, China. An official with the National Institutes of Health claimed the project does not align with “agency priorities,” but the NIH’s strategic plan for studying the coronavirus includes the exact mission of the bat project: understanding the origin and transmission of the novel coronavirus.
Suddenly ending a grant early is an unusual move for the NIH, which typically takes such steps only when there is evidence of scientific misconduct or financial improprieties — neither of which it has alleged took place in this case.
The project is run by a U.S. based nonprofit called EcoHealth Alliance, which invests in health research across the world. The nonprofit has been given millions of dollars in grants over the years, most recently in 2019.
  • Scientists have studied the genetic structure of the novel coronavirus and confirmed that it is naturally-occurring: "Two features of the virus, the mutations in the RBD portion of the spike protein and its distinct backbone, rules out laboratory manipulation as a potential origin for SARS-CoV-2." There is also no evidence that a natural bat virus “escaped” a lab: “the level of genome sequence divergence between SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13 is equivalent to an average of 50 years (and at least 20 years) of evolutionary change."

Rightwing media

Rightwing media in America seized on an April 11 story in the Daily Mail, a British tabloid, that implied a link between these grants and the spread of the pandemic. On April 17 the story entered the mainstream when a Newsmax reporter asked Trump about the grants, framing it as an Obama Administration decision. In reality, the NIH has awarded grants to EcoHealth since 2005, which distributed the money to fund research in Shanghai, Beijing, and Singapore, as well as Wuhan.
On April 26, Rudy Giuliani appeared on a New York radio show to falsely suggest that the coronavirus was created as a biological weapon, blaming Dr. Fauci and Obama for the spread:
“China for the last 10 to 12 years has been carrying on these experiments, including in this Wuhan laboratory, with animals, and actually making this virus more dangerous,” Giuliani said on the show. “You could say that’s for scientific purposes, or you could say that’s for the purpose of weaponizing them.”

Trump buys in

Days after Giuliani’s interview, the New York Times reported (non-paywalled) that the Trump administration had tasked intelligence agencies to “hunt for evidence to support” the theory that the virus originated in the Wuhan laboratory.
Most intelligence agencies remain skeptical that conclusive evidence of a link to a lab can be found, and scientists who have studied the genetics of the coronavirus say that the overwhelming probability is that it leapt from animal to human in a nonlaboratory setting, as was the case with H.I.V., Ebola and SARS.
Yesterday, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence - currently run by Trump loyalist Richard Grenell - released a statement refuting the conspiracy touted by Trump allies: “The Intelligence Community also concurs with the wide scientific consensus that the COVID-19 virus was not manmade or genetically modified."
Current and former national security officials said they were surprised by the release, and suggested it could be a sign that the intelligence community feels it is being pulled into a political battle. The administration has been pressuring analysts, particularly at the CIA, to search for evidence that the virus came from a lab and that the World Health Organization helped China cover it up, according to a person briefed on the discussions.
Later in the day, Fox News reporter John Roberts asked Trump about the statement, who responded by casting doubt on the director he handpicked for the job:
Roberts: The Director of National Intelligence today put out a statement saying they believe [the coronavirus] was naturally occurring, it was not manmade-
Trump: Who was that-who was that who said that?
R: the Office of the Director of National Intelligence
T: But who in particular? Who was the man who made that statement?
R: It was a statement from the ODNI-
T: Oh, he would know that, huh? National Intelligence. So we’ll see-
R: That would be your Director of National Intelligence, Ric Grenell
T: No I know, I think it’s - I mean you’d have to tell me who specifically, who made the statement?
R: The statement was just put out under the offices of the ODNI.
T: Okay, we’ll see. I mean, I have to see the statement. I just haven’t seen it. (video)
Roberts then redirected the question, asking:
R: Have you seen anything at this point that gives you a high degree of confidence that the Wuhan Institute of Virology was the origin of this virus?
T: Yes, I have. And I think that the WHO should be ashamed of themselves, because they’re like the PR agency for China... They shouldn’t be making excuses when people make horrible mistakes. Especially mistakes that are causing hundreds of people around the world to die. (video)
"And what gives you a high degree of confidence that this originated from the Wuhan Institute of Virology?" Roberts asked again, later.
"I can't tell you that," Trump said. "I'm not allowed to tell you that." (video)
  • More fact-checking: WaPo "Was the new coronavirus accidentally released from a Wuhan lab? It’s doubtful."
  • Further reading: Reuters “Trump says China wants him to lose his re-election bid,” CNN “Trump administration draws up plans to punish China over coronavirus outbreak.”

White House testing plan

On Monday, Trump unveiled an 8-part plan to increase testing capacity across the country with the goal to reopen states. The presentation slide showed blue checkmarks indicating stage 1 “launch” and stage 2 “scale” are already complete, with only one step remaining to “support opening up again.” Conveniently for the administration, this final step is the responsibility of the governors, who must find a way to fulfill to vague mandates: "develop testing plans and rapid response programs" and "maximize the use of all available testing platforms and venues.”
"This document does nothing new and will accomplish nothing new," Sen. Patty Murray (D-Wash.) said in a statement. "It doesn't set specific, numeric goals, offer a timeframe, identify ways to fix our broken supply chain, or offer any details whatsoever on expanding lab capacity or activating needed manufacturing capacity. Perhaps most pathetically, it attempts to shirk obviously federal responsibilities by assigning them solely to states instead."
The president said the federal government will be shipping states a once-per-month supply large enough to test 2% of the population. Experts say this is not nearly enough:
Paul Romer, a Nobel Prize-winning economist from New York University who has recommended that 50 percent of the population be tested each week, said testing 2 percent “is not enough to test everyone in health care even once, let alone to keep retesting them every day, which is what it would take to keep those who do get infected from going on shift and infecting their colleagues.”
At this pace, testing 2% of the population at a time, it would take almost four years to test the entire U.S. population once, assuming the supply chain problems that have plagued the federal government’s response thus far suddenly clear up.
Despite the White House’s plan, during a press briefing on Wednesday President Trump downplayed the importance of testing:
"You shouldn't be hearing about testing, but that's the last thing [the media] can complain about I guess ...We’ve done incredible with the testing... I don't know that all that [testing] is even necessary." (video)
  • Fact check: Trump has claimed on a regular basis (video) that the U.S. has “tested more than every country combined.” Even just taking the top five countries as far as cumulative number of tests, the U.S. has actually conducted about 20 million fewer tests than those five countries combined.
  • Additionally, what matters most is the per capita testing rate. The United States’ number of COVID-19 tests performed per 1,000 people is below the average of the 36 member states of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, according to figures released Tuesday by the international body. The United States had conducted 16.4 tests per 1,000 people, compared to Iceland, top of the list, which had tested 135 people per 1,000.
  • More: Politico: As Trump Claims US Has Best Covid-19 Testing in the World, Capitol Physician Says He Lacks Capacity to Test All 100 Senators

Minorities and low-income communities

Meanwhile, there are still people in the nation dying after being denied a coronavirus test. A Detroit phlebotomist, Deborah Gatewood, reportedly died from coronavirus symptoms on April 17 after being denied a test four times. Her daughter told NBC News that Beaumont Hospital “said she wasn't severe enough and that they weren't going to test her...They told her to just go home and rest."
It is unclear why Gatewood was denied a test so many times, but hospitals across the country have complained of shortages of swabs, reagents and other supplies needed for testing kits, as well as delays in securing test results.
Gatewood’s story also exemplifies the disparities in testing and treatment between minorities and classes in America. From Charlotte, NC, to Illinois to Michigan, African Americans make up a disproportionately large amount of coronavirus cases compared to the demographics of the population. Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, is just 26% black, yet African-Americans account for almost half of the coronavirus cases and 80% of the deaths,
Dr. Barbara Ferrer, LA County health director: People who live in wealthier communities in LA County have been tested more than people who are living in communities where there is less income. (video)

Disparities

Fisher Island, a private island off the coast of Miami, Florida, is the richest ZIP code in the US, home to 800 families and staffed by over 400 workers. While the majority of Americans cannot get tested and some are denied tests even if they present symptoms of COVID-19, residents of the private island have spent tens of thousands of dollars to purchase thousands of rapid COVID-19 blood test kits that detect antibodies.
The purchase and availability of the testing are in sharp contrast to much of the rest of the state, where only about 1 percent of the population has been tested for the deadly virus that has caused a global pandemic… The tests, which are finger-prick blood tests, detect the presence of antibodies, an important aspect that could determine who has already had the disease and is likely immune… The tests haven’t been widely available in South Florida.

Trump sits on funeral aid

ProPublica reported yesterday that Trump has yet to release federal assistance specifically intended to help families cover burial costs for victims of the coronavirus.
Approximately 30 states and territories have requested the funding as the pandemic spreads across the country and struggling families ask for help burying their dead… In response to questions, FEMA stated that the decision on which programs to fund is in Trump’s hands.
...GoFundMe sites that have sprung up in the crisis show the shortfalls many families are facing. Family and friends of Devin Francis, a 44-year old radiology technician in Miami who was about to get married when he died of COVID-19 in early April, raised $4,300 of its $5,000 GoFundMe goal. Other posts cite burial costs for a father and son in New York who both died of the disease, and a chef in Chicago.

Seized supplies

VA masks

Each week we learn of more and more instances of the federal government intervening to seize supplies ordered by states and hospitals. Yet, in many cases, we still don’t know for certain where these supplies are ultimately going and why.
Last weekend, Executive in Charge of the Veterans Health Administration Richard Stone finally acknowledged the shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) at the VA and revealed that FEMA blocked an order of 5 million masks from reaching VA facilities. “I had 5 million masks incoming that disappeared,” Stone said, adding that FEMA instead sent the masks to the Strategic National Stockpile.
VA’s four-week supply of equipment — on the shelves of 170 medical centers and in an emergency cache normally used for hurricane responses — was almost gone, and employees have held protests to say they were not safe… After an appeal from Secretary Robert Wilkie to top FEMA officials, the emergency management agency provided VA with 500,000 masks this week, FEMA said in a statement. It did not address questions about the agency’s diverted equipment orders.

Miami firefighters’ masks

Last Wednesday, the director of emergency management for Miami-Dade County (Florida)reported that a shipment of 1 million N95 face masks meant for local firefighters had been seized by FEMA. "We thought we were in pretty good shape with having that amount coming in, and they were — we were — usurped,” Director Frank Rollason said.
FEMA defended such confiscations, saying that bringing too much personal protective equipment into coronavirus hotspots can disrupt supply chains to other parts of the country. However, the White House repeatedly told state and local authorities to obtain supplies wherever they could.
At the time of writing this post, Miami-Dade county surpassed 12,000 confirmed coronavirus cases, the highest in the state.

San Francisco’s challenges

Last Friday, San Francisco Mayor London Breed held a press conference in which she described the difficulties the city has faced obtaining PPE:
“We’ve had issues of our orders being relocated by our suppliers in China,” she said. “For example, we had isolation gowns on their way to San Francisco and they were diverted to France. We’ve had situations when things we’ve ordered that have gone through Customs were confiscated by FEMA to be diverted to other locations. We know everyone is dealing with a serious challenge. Through Customs, we’ve had situations where those items have been taken and put out on the market for the highest bidder, putting cities against cities and states against states.”

Maryland guarding its tests

Maryland’s Republican Gov. Larry Hogan was forced to turn to South Korea to obtain coronavirus test kits in early April, using his wife - a Korean immigrant - as a key lifeline for his state. Speaking about the ordeal yesterday, Hogan described the operation like a top-secret mission, hiding the planeload from the feds out of fear FEMA would confiscate the test kits.
"This was an enormously valuable payload. It was like Fort Knox to us, because it was going to save the lives of thousands of our citizens.”
Like Fort Knox, the supplies are currently at "an undisclosed location” under the protection of the Maryland National Guard and state police. "The administration made it clear over and over again they want the states to take the lead, and we have to go out and do it ourselves, and that's exactly what we did," Hogan said.

Mismanagement of contracts

In 2015, the Obama administration inked a contract with medical manufacturer O&M Halyard called for the creation of a “one-of-a-kind, high-speed machine” that could produce at least 1.5 million N95 masks per day. In September 2018, the company delivered detailed plans for the machine to the Trump administration… but Trump’s Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) did not proceed with making the machine.
“The Halyard contract was part of an explicit strategy to ensure we could surge mask production in the next crisis,” said Nicole Lurie, who was the HHS assistant secretary for preparedness and response under Barack Obama. “Now we’re dealing with the consequences of not having that capability.”
HHS officials have said that there was no funding to build the machine, but the department that solicited the design had a budget of nearly $1.5 billion for 2020, according to an HHS report.

Contracts to Trump allies

In early March, Mike Bowen, the executive vice president of the medical mask manufacturer Prestige Ameritech, found the perfect way to drum up some federal business: He went on Steve Bannon's podcast, which is highly popular at the White House… A month later, at the explicit request of the White House, Prestige Ameritech had a $9.5 million contract with the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Bannon told NBC News that his team put Bowen in touch with White House advisor Peter Navarro, who apparently facilitated the deal.
In the only other agreement with a similar notation that NBC News could find in the 11 years or so of online disclosure of federal contracts, one that was first reported by ProPublica, the Trump White House was named in March as the authority seeking a $96 million deal with the Canadian company AirBoss of America. As ProPublica reported, the deal calls for the delivery of 100,000 respirators and filters to New York and other locations by July 31, and it isn't clear why the White House was eager to award the no-bid contract to the company.

All it takes is a tweet

An electrical engineer in Silicon Valley (with 75 followers) responded to Trump’s tweet about ventilators at the end of March with his own tweet claiming he could “supply ICU ventilators.” Apparently this was all it took for the White House coronavirus to recommend the individual to New York state officials, who quickly paid Oren-Pines $69.1 million for 1,450 ventilators - at least triple the standard retail price of high-end models.
Now, a month later, not a single ventilator has arrived and the contract was terminated. New York state is trying to recover all of the money it paid the man, Yaron Oren-Pines. “The guy was recommended to us by the White House coronavirus task force because they were doing business with him as well,” said the New York state official.

Stepping up

A profile of the efforts of an ex-Google software developer to obtain medical supplies for American healthcare workers demonstrates “that this is not an impossible task and that the Trump administration has failed miserably in this mission.”
Ning Mosberger-Tang, of Boulder, Colorado, founded “Step Up in Crisis” to raise money and purchase PPE from China, despite having no previous experience in procuring medical equipment.
In late April, the first shipment of PPE obtained by Step Up in Crisis—50,000 of the surgical masks and the shoe covers—reached a warehouse in Los Angeles. The rest of the supplies are scheduled to arrive in different shipments through the first three weeks of May… Step Up in Crisis is looking to sell the PPE at its cost to hospitals that can afford to buy the supplies, but it also intends to donate some equipment to facilities that are financially strapped.
...Mosberger-Tang, an American citizen, points out that the current anti-China talk from Donald Trump and his political allies does not help on this front: “I wish the US government could be smarter in dealing with China. They know this manufacturing is in China. There is no point to calling this the ‘Chinese virus’ and irritate the Chinese government and end up not getting the equipment you need.”

FEMA stepping back

Other than seizing supplies, what is FEMA up to? The Trump administration is reportedly planning to end the role of FEMA’s National Response Coordination Center in managing the federal response to the coronavirus crisis. Its responsibilities will be handed over to unnamed persons at HHS.
House Oversight Committee Chairwoman Carolyn Maloney responded:
President Trump seems to be declaring ‘Mission Accomplished’ while hundreds of Americans are dying every day, communities across the country are facing critical shortages of test kits and life-saving medical equipment, and millions of Americans are out of work and need assistance. The Administration has not briefed Congress on this move and has not identified a clear, unified command structure for the continued federal response.”

Hydroxychloroquine update

Federal prosecutors are investigating a New York doctor who appeared on Fox News frequently to promote the use of hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19. The doctor, Vladimir “Zev” Zelenko, has been in touch with the White House
Zelenko came to the feds’ attention when - get this - Jerome Corsi (an associate of Roger Stone) accidentally sent an email intended for Zelenko to another “Z” name in his address book — federal prosecutor Aaron Zelinsky, a member of Mueller’s team.
Zelinsky is tasked now with investigating coronavirus-related crimes in the Maryland U.S. attorney’s office, as part of a directive from U.S. Attorney General William P. Barr to prioritize such cases. The department already has charged a medley of fraudsters for peddling fake cures
Vaccine expert Dr. Rick Bright is preparing to submit a whistleblower complaint documenting Trump’s push of an unproven anti-malarial drug. “It is expected that Bright’s complaint, when revealed, will shed new light on the political pressure exerted by the Trump administration on health officials to back up the president’s sweeping praise of the drugs as a key weapon against Covid-19.”

Further reading

States and reopening
  • On Thursday, hundreds of protestors - some armed - stormed Michigan’s state capitol to protest the governor’s use of emergency powers to respond to the coronavirus pandemic: A tightly packed crowd of protesters, some carrying rifles, attempted to enter the floor of the legislative chamber, and were held back by a line of state police and capitol staff...“Let us in! Let us in!” the protesters chanted (video).
    • Friday morning, Trump tweeted his support for the armed protestors: “The Governor of Michigan should give a little, and put out the fire. These are very good people, but they are angry. They want their lives back again, safely! See them, talk to them, make a deal.”
  • NBC News: As a handful of states begin to ease stay-at-home restrictions, no state that has opted to reopen has come close to the federally recommended decline in cases over a 14-day period.
  • CNN: Florida will start to reopen May 4, but for now Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties won't be included. DeSantis said restaurants and retail spaces could let customers inside, but only at 25% capacity.
    • Tampa Bay Times: Florida medical examiners were releasing coronavirus death data. The state made them stop. When the medical examiners’ list was available, it showed more deaths than the state’s count.
  • The Atlantic: Georgia’s Experiment in Human Sacrifice. The state is about to find out how many people need to lose their lives to shore up the economy.
  • WaPo: Iowa, Oklahoma and other states reopening soon amid the coronavirus outbreak are issuing early warnings to their worried workers: Return to your jobs or risk losing unemployment benefits.
  • Houston Chronicle: Texas reports most deaths in a day from COVID-19 as Gov. Abbott prepares to drop stay-home order
  • The Hill: Tennessee has highest one-day jump in coronavirus cases ahead of restaurant reopening
  • ABC news: A Michigan judge sided with Gov. Gretchen Whitmer Wednesday in a lawsuit filed against her shelter-in-place order and denied the plaintiffs an injunction.
  • CBS News: A southern Illinois judge on Monday blocked Governor J.B. Pritzker's 30-day extension of the state's stay-at-home order, granting a temporary restraining order sought by a Republican state lawmaker who argued the governor overstepped his authority
  • AP: More than 50 people who voted in person or worked the polls during Wisconsin’s election earlier this month have tested positive for COVID-19 so far.
  • Center for Economic and Policy Research: Meatpacking Workers are a Diverse Group Who Need Better Protections
    • Government Executive: Federal Inspectors Are Fearful, Angry About Trump's Order to Reopen Outbreak-Stricken Meat Plants. USDA is still not providing masks and is doing "absolutely nothing" to protect workers, inspectors say.
Informative reads:
  • The new coronavirus is likely to keep spreading for at least another 18 months to two years—until 60% to 70% of the population has been infected, a team of longstanding pandemic experts predicted in a report released Thursday.
  • Center for Global Development's Jeremy Konyndyk: it looks like US-style lockdowns are enough to freeze transmission in place (R=1) but not enough to drive it down (R<1). Which suggests that without further measures, we could remain on this plateau for quite a while... for each month we remain on the plateau, we risk losing more Americans than we lost in nearly a decade in Vietnam. If we spend May like we spent April, we will blow past 100k dead in weeks.
    • The way forward is very clear: test, trace, isolate, protect. Putting that infrastructure into place can bring down cases to a manageable level, enable us to relax lockdowns, and move to a posture of sustainable suppression. But that will be tough to deliver without the feds... We are stuck in an untenable holding pattern as long as federal leadership means vague slide decks and empty assurances rather than test kits, PPE, and accountability.
submitted by rusticgorilla to Keep_Track [link] [comments]


2020.04.17 17:10 kaitie_cakes Healthcare worker discounts during COVID

Here is a list of free/ discount items for healthcare workers during this COVID time from various companies! Some may be regional or have limitations.

Clothing
CROCS Sharing a Free Pair for Health Care – Crocs is donating a free pair of shoes including free shipping to healthcare workers on the frontlines of COVID-19. Colors, patterns and quantities subject to availability.
Big Lots 15% OFF everything, every day at Biglots now thru April 30th. Just show your badge, work or military ID to cashier or use code BIGHEROES online at checkout and use our new curbside pick-up!
Under Armour 40% off Under Armour purchases for all military, first responders, and healthcare providers.
Dearfoams Dearfoams is giving away free slippers to healthcare workers to make their time off a little more cozy. Sign upon their website. Dearfoams has also committed to donating 100,000 face masks to healthcare heroes.
Dollar General Popular retailer Dollar General is offering a 10% discount on qualifying purchases to all medical personnel, first responders, and activated National Guardsmen. Just present your employer badge or ID. This offer is currently good through April 30, 2020 and may be extended further.
Dr. Scholl’s Dr. Scholl's is donating 100,000 pairs of insoles to healthcare workers across the country. Hospitals can email [email protected] to submit a request for their medical staff.
Universal Standard Apparel company Universal Standard is offering a free piece of clothing from their Foundation line of soft tees, bodysuits, and tanks to nurses, doctors, and medical workers in the U.S. while supplies last. Email a photo of your credential to [email protected] to receive this offer.
Clove Clove is a healthcare apparel company. They are offering free compression socks with every Clove purchase. Just add a pair of socks to a cart containing shoes, and use code WITHLOVE for the discount to properly apply.
Gabe's Gabe's Stores are offering a 15% employee savings to medical professionals, first responders, police, fire, and military personnel. The discount can be used toward personal care items, scrubs, cleaning supplies, antibacterial soaps, baby and pet care, and more.
Medelita Medical workers can receive a 30% discount on Medelita scrubs by using code FRONTLINES at checkout.
Saxx Underwear Frontline workers including medical staff, grocers, sanitation workers, transport crews, police, and more are eligible for a 30% discount on Saxx Underwear. Follow the directions on the link to receive your discount
NorthFace From April 14, 2020 to Dec. 31, 2020 we will be giving a 50% discount to healthcare workers in the United States. This discount can be used for the purchase of non-sale items on thenorthface.com and at The North Face-owned retail stores in the United States. During this same period we will also be offering these individuals a 10% discount on non-clearance items at our outlet stores in the United States.

Food and Drinks
Starbucks Starting today through May 3rd, any customer who identifies as a front-line responder to the COVID-19 outbreak will receive a tall brewed coffee (hot or iced) at no charge.
Circle K FREE coffee, tea and Polar Pop Fountain to first responders and health care workers on the front line until April 30! To redeem, simply visit any participating Circle K and show a valid ID.
Krispy Kreme Krispy Kreme is offering 2 dozen free Original Glazed donuts - Drive Thru Only to health care workers, any day of the week, now through May 11th. For more information, click here.
UBER Uber is providing free meals on Uber Eats for first responders and health care workers in coordination with local and state governments. Click here to learn more.
Hooters Hospital workers, first responders and military get 20% off. Show your work ID for pickup orders, or for online orders choose the “Pay at Store” option.
IHOP 20% off your entire check at IHOP if you’re a medical, law enforcement, military and firefighter professional. Just mention this offer when you call in your order to IHOP. Then, show your Official ID when you pick up your order.
COSTCO Costco is temporarily allowing priority access to their warehouses for Costco members who are healthcare workers, first responders such as police officers, EMTs and firefighters. Healthcare workers and first responders who present a Costco membership card and official identification of their role, will be allows to move to the front of any line to enter the warehouse.
Sam's Club Bulk goods clubhouse Sam's Club has announced that starting on April 19, it will implement "Hero Hours" for healthcare workers and first responders, which will take place every Sunday from 8am-10am. No membership will be required for Hero Hours and Sam's Club will provide masks to wear in-store. Please note that spouses and other family members or guests will not be allowed in the store for Hero Hours.
&pizza With locations in Washington D.C., Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, and Massachusetts, restaurant chain &pizza is offering free pizza to hospital workers. Stop in and present a valid ID, or text #HERO to 200-03 to receive a unique code to get the pie delivered.
Cumberland Farms Cumberland Farms is giving away free hot or iced coffee (any size!) to nurses, doctors, paramedics, hospital and medical staff, medical researchers, police officers, firefighters, and active military.
Fitcrunch Care Package Nominate your best friend at work to receive a care package from Fitcrunch. The care package is filled with a Fitcrunch bar, antibacterial wipes, and an uplifting note.
McDonald's In some regions, McDonald's is offering free breakfast (small coffee and Egg McMuffin sandwich) to healthcare workers, police officers, and firefighters with valid ID or uniform. This is currently offered in the Southern California region (San Diego, LA, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, Ventura, and Imperial Counties). We have heard rumors of this being offered in other areas; we will try to update if we can confirm more, but we recommend calling your local McDonald's to see if this offer is good near you.
Nando's Peri Peri Chicken Nando's Peri Peri Chicken is offering free meals to workers with a valid hospital ID through May 3. The free meal includes a 1/4 chicken with chips. Offer must be redeemed by phone order and is not valid for delivery or online ordering. Limit one meal per day while supplies last.
Pizza vs. Pandemic
Pizza vs. Pandemic is donating pizzas to hospitals, clinics, shelters and more. Suggest a care center on their website to be considered for donation.
RaceTrac RaceTrac gas stations throughout the South are offering a free small coffee or fountain drink to all essential workers through April 30.
Realgood Foods Do you have a friend you admire in the healthcare field right now? This care package of food may be right up their alley. Realgood Foods offers care packages full of healthy foods for your fellow healthcare provider to snack on during their busy shift.
Saffron Road Saffron Road, makers of world cuisine products, is honoring community heroes on the front lines - from healthcare workers to delivery people to grocery clerks. Email [email protected] with subject line "coupons" to tell them about a community hero and they will send you BOTH a coupon for a free meal or snack.
Sweetgreen If you are located in Washington D.C., Philadelphia, Boston, New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, or Houston, Sweetgreen is delivering free salads and bowls to hospitals for the healthcare workers.
Wawa Convenience chain Wawa, which has locations in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, Florida, and Washington D.C., is offering free coffee to healthcare workers and first responders for the length of the Coronavirus pandemic.
White Castle Hungry? White Castle is offering a free Castle Combo or breakfast combo to healthcare workers and EMTs, valid through the end of April. This is good for drive-thru only and you must show ID to receive the offer.
Genghis Grill All healthcare workers and first responders can receive 20% off carryout orders anytime at Genghis Grill locations. Just present your medical badge or ID.
Home Chef Home Chef is a meal delivery company that ships you all the fresh, pre-portioned ingredients needed to make great recipes at home. They are offering a special discount for nurses, doctors, hospital employees, first responders, military, and teachers - 50% off first purchase and 10% off subsequent purchases. This deal is good for new customers only. Verify with ID.me at checkout to get started. See link for more details.
Thistle Ready-to-eat food delivery company Thistle is offering 10% off all deliveries to healthcare workers for the next 8 weeks. Use code HOSPITALHEROES at checkout.

Mental and Emotional Support
Headspace “You’re here for them, we’re here for you.” Headspace is offering all US health care professionals who work in public health settings free access to Headspace Plus through 2020.
Coaches4Good If you need help navigating all this uncertainty, free 30-minute professional life coaching sessions are available to healthcare, small business, education, and nonprofit leaders and workers through Coaches4Good.
Down Dog To keep your physical and mental health strong, Down Dog is offering all of its apps - Down Dog, Yoga for Beginners, HIIT, Barre, and 7 Minute Workout - completely free for nurses, doctors, and other healthcare professionals through July 1. Fill out the form on the link to take advantage of this offer.
Furbo Dog Camera Are you missing Fido while everyone else is working from home? You can check in on your pup by filling out a form for a free Furbo Camera!
Neurocore Counseling You don't need to go through this alone. Neurocore Counseling is offering free telehealth counseling to medical personnel and first responders through May 1 (date may even be extended). It is private and completely confidential.
Nurses House Nurses House, a national fund for nurses in need, has established a special grant for RNs and LPNs who have been diagnosed with COVID-19, are caring for a family member who has COVID-19, or are on employer-mandated quarantine due to COVID-19 (excluding nurses who are furloughed due to workplace closure). The grant is open to nurses in the U.S. with a valid nursing license through July 31, 2020. Apply for the COVID-19 grant at the link on their webpage.
Speeko Nurses, physicians, and other healthcare professionals can receive free access to the Speeko app through 2020 by filling out the form on the link. The app coaches people on effective communication skills. Speeko also maintains a free list of COVID-19 communication resources on their website.

Discounts on Cars (Some offers are regional)
AAA Free Roadside Assistance This includes tire change, towing, fuel delivery, battery, and lock-out service. Call 833-222-3284. Present your company ID as proof you work for an essential business.
GM (Chevrolet, Buick, Cadillac, and GMC) Even before the coronavirus crisis, GM already has its First Responder Discount. This month, however, GM includes healthcare workers. All of which are now eligible for the GM Supplier Pricing – prenegotiated discount that's the same with dealer's invoice price plus a $200 program fee. Participating GM brands include Chevrolet, Buick, Cadillac, and GMC. This offer can be used in conjunction with other deals like the limited 0% financing for 84 months. Qualifications include proof of employment, like a paystub from the last 30 days. The offer stands until June 30, 2020 and is available nationwide.
Honda All Honda vehicles are eligible to be acquired through the Honda First Responder & Healthcare Professional Appreciation Program. A $500 discount is currently on offer when financing or leasing via Honda Financial, which becomes $750 if you're getting an Acura, except for the NSX and the limited-edition PMC models. Moreover, the discount can be combined with other incentives like Honda's $1,000 loyalty discount currently on offer this month. Also, CarsDirect reports that the 2020 Honda Pilot will be cheaper by $30 per month when compared to March. This offer from Honda is available through July 6, 2020.
Hyundai Hyundai is no stranger to efforts during this COVID-19 crisis. The Korean marque started offering its $500 First Responder Program on to healthcare professionals and hospital employees on April 3. Prior to this, this deal was exclusive to EMTs and firefighters. The $500 discount can be used in conjunction with Hyundai's current 0% APR for 84 months and the 120-day payment deferral (on some models).
Mazda Mazda is offering its First Responder & Healthcare Worker Appreciation Program for customers in the Northeast up until April 30, 2020. The program gives an extra $500 off any new Mazda vehicle, which can be combined with the company's loyalty discount up to $1,500 this month. According to CarsDirect, proof of eligibility for this Mazda offer includes pay stub, current business license, or other approved proof of employment or ownership of a healthcare facility.
Volvo Also offered in the Northeast, Volvo gives a loyalty discount for first responders, medical personnel and teachers. The discount entails $2,500 when buying and $2,000 when leasing Volvo vehicles. This offer ends on April 30, 2020. Those who would like to avail need to provide proof of eligibility which could come in the form of a current paystub.

Misc. Services
Care.Com Care.com is providing one month of free, premium access to our site to support your important service to the community at this difficult time. • Access the largest online site for care • Find help for your children, parents & pets • Unlimited messaging with caregivers. Free for 30 days
National Auto Collision Centers No contact estimates available and free towing, pickup and delivery. Discount on deductible for first responders, health care workers, military, UPS/Fedex/postal service employees/grocery & pharmacy employees and anyone who is currently out of work during the shutdown.
Love Sac Furniture company Love Sac is offering 40% off Sacs and Sectionals to nurses, doctors, first responders, military, and teachers. This offer is good through May.
Purple Mattress company Purple is offering a special 10% discount to healthcare workers - check the link to see who is eligible...many healthcare professions are included! Verify your eligibility through the link on their site to receive your discount.
BP BP and Amoco gas stations are offering a discount to first responders, doctors, nurses and hospital workers of 50 cents off per gallon to use on their next fill up. Simply verify your community status via ID.me to obtain the 50-cent per gallon discount.

If you know of any other companies offering discounts for healthcare workers, add them to the comments below! Stay safe, friends.
submitted by kaitie_cakes to OccupationalTherapy [link] [comments]


2020.04.14 22:55 GingerRoot96 Epstein Wanted To “Seed Human Race With His DNA.” Bill Gates & Epstein Had A Relationship. Gates Has Compared DNA To A “Computer Program.” It Is Known That Ancient Viruses Of The Past Are Embedded Within Our Human DNA. Scientists Have Used Viruses To Alter DNA. All A Coincidence?

NY Times: Jeffrey Epstein Hoped to Seed Human Race With His DNA. Jeffrey E. Epstein, the wealthy financier who is accused of sex trafficking, had an unusual dream: He hoped to seed the human race with his DNA by impregnating women at his vast New Mexico ranch.
Mr. Epstein’s vision reflected his longstanding fascination with what has become known as transhumanism: the science of improving the human population through technologies like genetic engineering and artificial intelligence. Critics have likened transhumanism to a modern-day version of eugenics, the discredited field of improving the human race through controlled breeding.
Mr. Epstein attracted a glittering array of prominent scientists. They included the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Murray Gell-Mann, who discovered the quark; the theoretical physicist and best-selling author Stephen Hawking; the paleontologist and evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould; Oliver Sacks, the neurologist and best-selling author; George M. Church, a molecular engineer who has worked to identify genes that could be altered to create superior humans; and the M.I.T. theoretical physicist Frank Wilczek, a Nobel laureate. The lure for some of the scientists was Mr. Epstein’s money. He dangled financing for their pet projects. Some of the scientists said that the prospect of financing blinded them to the seriousness of his sexual transgressions, and even led them to give credence to some of Mr. Epstein’s half-baked scientific musings. Scientists gathered at dinner parties at Mr. Epstein’s Manhattan mansion, where Dom Pérignon and expensive wines flowed freely, even though Mr. Epstein did not drink. He hosted buffet lunches at Harvard’s Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, which he had helped start with a $6.5 million donation.
Then there was Mr. Epstein’s interest in eugenics. On multiple occasions starting in the early 2000s, Mr. Epstein told scientists and businessmen about his ambitions to use his New Mexico ranch as a base where women would be inseminated with his sperm and would give birth to his babies, according to two award-winning scientists and an adviser to large companies and wealthy individuals, all of whom Mr. Epstein told about it.
According to Mr. Lanier, the NASA scientist said Mr. Epstein had based his idea for a baby ranch on accounts of the Repository for Germinal Choice, which was to be stocked with the sperm of Nobel laureates who wanted to strengthen the human gene pool. (Only one Nobel Prize winner has acknowledged contributing sperm to it. The repository discontinued operations in 1999.) Mr. Lanier, the virtual-reality creator and author, said he had the impression that Mr. Epstein was using the dinner parties — where some guests were attractive women with impressive academic credentials — to screen candidates to bear Mr. Epstein’s children. Mr. Epstein did not hide his interest in tinkering with genes — and in perpetuating his own DNA. One adherent of transhumanism said that he and Mr. Epstein discussed the financier’s interest in cryonics, an unproven science in which people’s bodies are frozen to be brought back to life in the future. Mr. Epstein told this person that he wanted his head and penis to be frozen. Southern Trust Company, Mr. Epstein’s Virgin Island-incorporated business, disclosed in a local filing that it was engaged in DNA analysis. Calls to Southern Trust, which sponsored a science and math fair for school children in the Virgin Islands in 2014, were not returned.
“DNA is like a computer program but far, far more advanced than any software ever created.” - Bill Gates
Bill Gates Met With Jeffrey Epstein Many Times, Despite His Past
Few, though, compared in prestige and power to the world’s second-richest person, a brilliant and intensely private luminary: Bill Gates. And unlike many others, Mr. Gates started the relationship after Mr. Epstein was convicted of sex crimes. Mr. Gates, the Microsoft co-founder, whose $100 billion-plus fortune has endowed the world’s largest charitable organization, has done his best to minimize his connections to Mr. Epstein. “I didn’t have any business relationship or friendship with him,” he told The Wall Street Journal last month. In fact, beginning in 2011, Mr. Gates met with Mr. Epstein on numerous occasions — including at least three times at Mr. Epstein’s palatial Manhattan townhouse, and at least once staying late into the night, according to interviews with more than a dozen people familiar with the relationship, as well as documents reviewed by The New York Times. Employees of Mr. Gates’s foundation also paid multiple visits to Mr. Epstein’s mansion. And Mr. Epstein spoke with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and JPMorgan Chase about a proposed multibillion-dollar charitable fund — an arrangement that had the potential to generate enormous fees for Mr. Epstein.
The Gates Foundation recently joined a new $460 million global coalition to prevent epidemics. He said the focus will be on rapidly developing vaccines. “The good news is,” he said “science has these RNA, DNA-type vaccines that you might literally in a period of months be able to create something new instead of the many years that it takes now.”
Why Bill Gates is betting on a start-up that prints synthetic DNA
Four years later the Boston-based synthetic biology start-up, founded by a team of MIT scientists in 2009, has raised $429 million, including from Cascade Investment, the asset management firm of Bill Gates, and is reportedly worth $1 billion. Over the last several years, Ginkgo has developed an automated process for combining genetic parts that has made it the largest designer of printed DNA in the world.
Essentially, synthetic biology involves reconfiguring the genome of an organism to get it to do something entirely new. Kelly likens it to computer programming, only with genetic sequences. So think of DNA as computer code, and then imagine you can design sequences of DNA on the computer, physically print out those sequences, and insert them into microorganisms such as yeast and bacteria so they make products like rose-scented oil for perfume or sweeteners for beverages.
DNA as a computer program...where have I also heard that from....🤔
"We're learning how to rewrite the code of life," said Frances Arnold, a professor of chemical engineering, bioengineering, and biochemistry at the California Institute of Technology. "We're seeing a move toward making things that either chemistry cannot make or can't make efficiently but biology does." The idea of modifying the DNA of organisms precedes the moniker of synthetic biology by many years. Genetic modification dates back to the 1980s, and genetic engineering for biofuels in the agricultural, pharmaceutical and energy industry has been common practice for some time. Think of Monsanto's Bt corn, which uses a modified bacteria to protect crops from damaging insects, and you have the idea. Such work has normally been the purview of highly trained scientists, but companies like Ginkgo are catching fire now, thanks to a confluence of factors. "We can read DNA and write DNA very cheaply now. We can synthesize DNA in ways we couldn't just five years ago," Arnold said.
Bill and Melinda Gates shined a spotlight on at-home DNA tests like 23andMe, calling them one of last year's biggest surprises
It’s going to be a big year for at-home DNA tests. The spit-in-a-tube kits, which offer the ability to learn more about your heritage and — to a lesser extent — your health, have spiked in popularity in recent years. And now that at least 19 million people have used Ancestry and 23andMe’s kits, Bill and Melinda Gates are shining a spotlight on the tests' surprising utility in two fairly divergent areas: crime and maternal health. In their yearly letter, the Gateses called genetic tests the second-biggest surprise of 2018. "We didn’t see this coming," the Gateses wrote at the top of their letter.
More ancient viruses lurk in our DNA than we thought
Think your DNA is all human? Think again. And a new discovery suggests it's even less human than scientists previously thought. Nineteen new pieces of non-human DNA -- left by viruses that first infected our ancestors hundreds of thousands of years ago -- have just been found, lurking between our own genes. And one stretch of newfound DNA, found in about 50 of the 2,500 people studied, contains an intact, full genetic recipe for an entire virus, say the scientists who published their findings in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Whether or not it can replicate, or reproduce, it isn't yet known. But other studies of ancient virus DNA have shown it can affect the humans who carry it. In addition to finding these new stretches, the scientists also confirmed 17 other pieces of virus DNA found in human genomes by other scientists in recent years.
The findings add to what science already knows about human endogenous retroviruses, or HERVs. That's the name for the ancient infectious viruses that inserted a DNA-based copy of their own RNA genetic material into our ancestors' genomes. They're part of the same type of virus that includes the modern human immunodeficiency virus, which causes AIDS. Over generations, the virus-generated DNA kept getting copied and handed down when humans reproduced. That's how it ended up in our DNA today. In fact, about 8 percent of what we think of as our "human" DNA actually came from viruses. In some cases, HERV sequences have been adopted by the human body to serve a useful purpose, such as one that helps pregnant women's bodies build a cell layer around a developing fetus to protect it from toxins in the mother's blood.
NY Times: Ancient Viruses Are Buried in Your DNA
In July, scientists reported that a strange protein courses through the veins of pregnant women. No one is sure what it’s there for. What makes this protein, called Hemo, so unusual is that it’s not made by the mother. Instead, it is made in her fetus and in the placenta, by a gene that originally came from a virus that infected our mammalian ancestors more than 100 million years ago. Hemo is not the only protein with such an alien origin: Our DNA contains roughly 100,000 pieces of viral DNA. Altogether, they make up about 8 percent of the human genome. And scientists are only starting to figure out what this viral DNA is doing to us.
Some of our ancient viruses may be protecting us from disease; others may be raising our risks for cancer, among other conditions. “It’s not an either-or — are these things good or bad? It’s a lot more complicated than that,” Dr. Katzourakis said in an interview. “We’re barely at the beginning of this research.” Most of our viral DNA comes from one group in particular: retroviruses, a group that includes HIV. A retrovirus invades a host cell and inserts its genes into that cell’s DNA. These viral genes co-opt the cell’s machinery, using it to make new viruses that escape to infect more cells. If a retrovirus happens to infect an egg or sperm, its DNA can potentially be passed to the next generation and the generation after that. Once retroviruses become inherited stowaways, scientists refer to them as endogenous retroviruses. At first, endogenous retroviruses coax cells to make more retroviruses that can infect other cells. But over the generations, the viral DNA mutates, and endogenous retroviruses eventually lose the ability to infect new cells. Even after being hobbled, these endogenous retroviruses can still sometimes make their proteins. And they can also reproduce, after a fashion. They can force cells to make copies of their DNA, which are inserted back in the cell’s own genome. After a single infection, an endogenous retrovirus may build up hundreds of copies of itself in its host’s DNA.
Different viruses infect different types of cells. HIV, for example, infects immune cells, while cold and flu viruses infect cells in the respiratory tract. But one thing viruses have in common is their ability to insert their own genetic material into the DNA of the host cell, altering its function. That trait alone has potential therapeutic uses. Imagine viruses as a Trojan horse of sorts - able to gain entrance into a human cell and deposit its genetic stash, good or bad.
Scientists now believe that they may be able to engineer viruses that target certain diseases, or that boost our own immune system when it's under attack from cancer. In fact, every virus that is studied for therapeutic benefits has been genetically modified in a lab. Some have been changed to be more focused in the types of cells they target, or to attack a disease on multiple fronts. "Some of these viruses, they're like an iPhone - you can put in all these different apps," said Dr. David Kirn, chief medical director of San Francisco-based Jennerex, where he's studying the vaccinia virus to fight liver cancer.
Scientists make first attempt to permanently change a person’s DNA to cure a disease
"We cut your DNA, open it up, insert a gene, stitch it back up. Invisible mending," said Dr Sandy Macrae, president of Sangamo Therapeutics, the California company testing this strategy for two metabolic diseases and haemophilia. "It becomes part of your DNA and is there for the rest of your life."
Remember this?
The coronavirus may be “reactivating” in people who have been cured of the illness, according to Korea’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Thought experiment: Could coronavirus be a manmade virus produced to alter human DNA over time? What is the end goal?
submitted by GingerRoot96 to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.04.09 08:56 MWiatrak2077 america

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country consisting of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[g] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), it is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area[c]. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 328 million, the U.S. is the third most populous country in the world. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago.[19] European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies led to the American Revolutionary War lasting between 1775 and 1783, leading to independence.[20] The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century—gradually acquiring new territories,[21] displacing Native Americans, and admitting new states—until 1848 when it spanned the continent.[21] During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the abolition of slavery in the United States.[22][23] The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power.
The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower. It was the first country to develop nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in warfare. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. The end of the Cold War and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.[24]
The United States is a federal republic and a representative democracy. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), NATO, and other international organizations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
A highly developed country, the United States is the world's largest economy by nominal GDP, the second-largest by purchasing power parity, and accounts for approximately a quarter of global GDP.[25] The United States is the world's largest importer and the second-largest exporter of goods, by value.[26][27] Although its population is 4% of the world total,[28] it holds 29.4% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.[29] Despite income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank very high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, median income, median wealth, human development, per capita GDP, and worker productivity.[30][31] It is the foremost military power in the world, making up more than a third of global military spending,[32] and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.[33]
Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history 2.2 Effects on and interaction with native populations 2.3 European settlements 2.4 Independence and expansion (1776–1865) 2.5 Civil War and Reconstruction era 2.6 Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization 2.7 World War I, Great Depression, and World War II 2.8 Cold War and civil rights era 2.9 Contemporary history 3 Geography, climate, and environment 3.1 Wildlife 4 Demographics 4.1 Population 4.1.1 Major population areas 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion 4.4 Family structure 4.5 Health 4.6 Education 4.6.1 Higher education 5 Government and politics 5.1 Political divisions 5.2 Parties and elections 5.3 Foreign relations 5.4 Government finance 5.5 Military 6 Law enforcement and crime 7 Economy 7.1 Science and technology 7.2 Income, poverty and wealth 8 Infrastructure 8.1 Transportation 8.2 Energy 8.3 Water supply and sanitation 9 Culture 9.1 Food 9.2 Literature, philosophy, and visual art 9.3 Music 9.4 Cinema 9.5 Sports 9.6 Mass media 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links Etymology See also: Naming of the Americas, Names for United States citizens, and American (word) The first known use of the name "America" dates back to 1507, when it appeared on a world map created by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller. The name on the map applied to the lands of South America, in honor of the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius).[34] After returning from his expeditions, Vespucci first postulated that the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern limit, as initially thought by Columbus, but instead were part of an entirely separate landmass thus far unknown to the Europeans.[35] Then in 1538, the Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator used the name "America" on his map of the world, applying it to the entire Western Hemisphere.[36]
The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort.[37][38][39] The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776.[40]
The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America'".[41] The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'".[42] In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence.[41] This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation.[41]
The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of Columbia". Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia.[43]
The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865.[44] The singular form—e.g., "the United States is"—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit.[45]
A citizen of the United States is an "American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" rarely refers to topics or subjects not directly connected with the United States.[46]
History Main articles: History of the United States, Timeline of United States history, American business history, Economic history of the United States, and Labor history of the United States Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history Further information: Native Americans in the United States and Pre-Columbian era
The Cliff Palace, built by ancient Native American Puebloans around 1190 AD It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 12,000 years ago; however, increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.[19][47][48] After crossing the land bridge, the first Americans moved southward along the Pacific coast[49] and through an interior ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets.[50] The Clovis culture appeared around 11,000 BC, and is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous cultures of the Americas.[51] The Clovis culture was believed to represent the first human settlement of the Americas.[52] Over the years, more and more evidence has advanced the idea of "pre-Clovis" cultures including tools dating back about 15,550 years ago. It is likely these represent the first of three major waves of migrations into North America.[53]
Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.[54] The Mississippian culture flourished in the south from 800 to 1600 AD, extending from the Mexican border down through Florida.[55] Its city state Cahokia is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian archaeological site in the modern-day United States.[56] In the Four Corners region, Ancestral Puebloans culture developed as the culmination of centuries of agricultural experimentation, which produced greater dependence on farming.[57]
A Native American Lecroy Point flint arrowhead, 9000-7000 BC Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, and Taos Pueblo.[58][59] The earthworks constructed by Native Americans of the Poverty Point culture in northeastern Louisiana have also been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.[60] Most prominent along the Atlantic cost were the Algonquian tribes, who practiced hunting and trapping, along with limited cultivation. The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate.[61] Archaeological evidence seems to indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD.[62]
Effects on and interaction with native populations Further information: American Indian Wars, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, and Native American disease and epidemics With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[63] The native population of America declined after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons,[64][65] primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles.[66][67]
While estimating the original native population of North America at the time of European contact is difficult, an attempt was made in the early part of the twentieth century by James Mooney using historic records to estimate the indigenous population north of Mexico in 1600.[68][69] In more recent years, Douglas H. Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution has updated these figures.[70] While Ubelaker estimated that there was a population of 92,916 in the south Atlantic states and a population of 473,616 in the Gulf states, most academics regard the figure as too low.[68] Anthropologist Henry F. Dobyns believed the populations were much higher, suggesting 1,100,000 along the shores of the gulf of Mexico, 2,211,000 people living between Florida and Massachusetts, 5,250,000 in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries and 697,000 people in the Florida peninsula.[68][69]
In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares.[71] Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans, and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.[72][73]
European settlements Further information: Colonial history of the United States, European colonization of the Americas, and Thirteen Colonies
Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall With the advancement of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[74] The first Europeans to arrive in the territory of the modern United States were Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first visit to Florida in 1513; however, if unincorporated territories are accounted for, then credit would go to Christopher Columbus who landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage. The Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico such as Saint Augustine[75] and Santa Fe. The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses created in 1619, the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, established precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies.[76][77]
Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period, Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply.[78] Cities eventually dotted the coast to support local economies and serve as trade hubs. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups. As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west.[79]
European territorial claims during the mid-18th century A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun.[80] The life expectancy of slaves was much higher in North America than further south, because of less disease and better food and treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the numbers of slaves.[81][82] Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery, and colonies passed acts for and against the practice.[83][84] But by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves were replacing indentured servants for cash crop labor, especially in southern regions.[85]
With the establishment of the Province of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were administered by the British as overseas dependencies.[86] All nonetheless had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism.[87] With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed.[88] The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest both in religion and in religious liberty.[89]
During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about a third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.[90] The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.[91]
In 1774, the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez, entered and anchored in an inlet of Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, in present-day British Columbia. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.[92] At the time, the Spanish were able to monopolize the trade between Asia and North America, granting limited licenses to the Portuguese. When the Russians began establishing a growing fur trading system in Alaska, the Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest.[93][h]
During his third and final voyage, Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii.[95] Captain Cook's last voyage included sailing along the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a Northwest Passage for approximately nine months.[96]
Independence and expansion (1776–1865) Further information: American Revolutionary War, United States Declaration of Independence, American Revolution, and Territorial evolution of the United States
Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism" asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.[97]
The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence, which recognized in a long preamble that their unalienable rights were not being protected by Great Britain. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day:[98] "... where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States'".[99] In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a decentralized government that operated until 1789.[98]
Map of territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917 Following the decisive Franco-American victory at Yorktown in 1781,[100] Britain signed the peace treaty of 1783, and American sovereignty was internationally recognized and the country was granted all lands east of the Mississippi River. Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who had led the Continental Army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791.[101]
Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population.[102][103][104] The Second Great Awakening, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism;[105] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.[106]
Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars.[107] The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's area.[108] The War of 1812, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism.[109] A series of military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819.[110] The expansion was aided by steam power, when steamboats began traveling along America's large water systems, many of which were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then, even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's land.[111]
American bison grazing The Gateway Arch, in St. Louis, Missouri, was built in 1965 to commemorate the westward expansion of the United States.[112] From 1820 to 1850, Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that forcibly resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845 during a period of expansionist Manifest destiny.[113] The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest.[114] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest.[115] The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 spurred migration to the Pacific coast, which led to the California Genocide[116][117][118][119] and the creation of additional western states.[120] After the American Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native Americans.[121] For half a century, the rapidly declining buffalo struck an existential blow to many Plains Indians' culture.[122] In 1869, a new Peace Policy nominally promised to protect Native-Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship. Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the 1900s.
Civil War and Reconstruction era Further information: American Civil War and Reconstruction era
President Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863 Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.[123] Initially, states entering the Union had alternated between slave and free states, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.[124]
With the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "South"), while the federal government (the "Union") maintained that secession was illegal.[124] In order to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many civilians.[125] The South fought for the freedom to own slaves, while the Union at first simply fought to maintain the country as one united whole. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery.
Three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution in the years after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the Fourteenth Amendment providing citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves,[126] and the Fifteenth Amendment ensuring in theory that African Americans had the right to vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power[127] aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves.
Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his assassination on April 14, 1865, drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876.
Southern white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction. From 1890 to 1910, so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation, especially in the South.[128] They also occasionally experienced vigilante violence, including lynching.[129]
Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization Main articles: Economic history of the United States and Technological and industrial history of the United States
Ellis Island, in New York Harbor, was a major entry point for European immigration into the U.S.[130] In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture.[131] National infrastructure including telegraph and transcontinental railroads spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.[132]
The United States fought Indian Wars west of the Mississippi River from 1810 to at least 1890.[133] Most of these conflicts ended with the cession of Native American territory and the confinement of the latter to Indian reservations. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets.[134] Mainland expansion also included the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.[135] In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War.[136] American Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War.[137] The United States purchased the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917.[138]
The Statue of Liberty in New York City, symbol of the United States as well as its ideals[139] Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status.[140] These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements.[141] This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions.[142][143][144]
World War I, Great Depression, and World War II Further information: World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when completed in 1931, during the Great Depression. The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in 1914 until 1917, when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.[145]
In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage.[146] The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television.[147] The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the establishment of the Social Security system.[148] The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s;[149] whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.[150]
U.S. troops landing on Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944 At first effectively neutral during World War II while Germany conquered much of continental Europe, the United States began supplying materiel to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers.[151] Although Japan attacked the United States first, the U.S. nonetheless pursued a "Europe first" defense policy.[152] The United States thus left its vast Asian colony, the Philippines, isolated and fighting a losing struggle against Japanese invasion and occupation, as military resources were devoted to the European theater. During the war, the United States was referred to as one of the "Four Policemen"[153] of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China.[154][155] Although the nation lost around 400,000 military personnel,[156] it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.[157]
Nuclear explosion from the Trinity Test Trinity test of the Manhattan Project's nuclear weapon The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war.[158] The United States and Japan then fought each other in the largest naval battle in history in terms of gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte Gulf.[159][160] The United States eventually developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; causing the Japanese to surrender on September 2, ending World War II.[161][162] Parades and celebrations followed in what is known as Victory Day, or V-J Day.[163]
Cold War and civil rights era Main articles: History of the United States (1945–1964), History of the United States (1964–1980), and History of the United States (1980–1991) Further information: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty, Space Race, and Reaganomics
Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, 1963 After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power, influence, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism[164] and, according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.
The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments, even supporting right-wing authoritarian governments at times.[165] American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–53.[166] The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969.[166] A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the Vietnam War.
At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments.[167][168] In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state added to the country.[169] The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination.[170][171][172] Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution.
U.S. president Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in Geneva, 1985 The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.[173]
The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the USSR.[174][175][176][177][178] After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.[179]
The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War.[180][181][182][183] This brought about unipolarity[184] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.
Contemporary history Main articles: History of the United States (1991–2008) and History of the United States (2008–present) Further information: Gulf War, September 11 attacks, War on Terror, 2008 financial crisis, Affordable Care Act, and Death of Osama bin Laden
The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during the September 11 terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda in 2001
One World Trade Center, newly built in its place After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. W. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.[185]
Originating within U.S. military defense networks, the Internet spread to international academic platforms and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture.[186] Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in 2001.[187] Beginning in 1994, the U.S. entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.[188]
On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people.[189] In response, the United States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan and the 2003–11 Iraq War.[190][191] In 2007, the Bush administration ordered a major troop surge in the Iraq War,[192] which successfully reduced violence and led to greater stability in the region.[193][194]
Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,[195] widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,[196] and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve[197] led to the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression.[198] Barack Obama, the first African-American[199] and multiracial[200] president, was elected in 2008 amid the crisis,[201] and subsequently passed stimulus measures and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements[202] and a relative decline in unemployment.[203] Dodd-Frank improved financial stability and consumer protection,[204] although there has been debate about its effects on the economy.[205]
President Donald Trump and former presidents Barack Obama, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter at the state funeral of George H. W. Bush, December 2018 In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act, which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges.
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2020.04.01 12:57 wateetons I've be giving online fermentation workshops and I'll do a FREE live online workshop 'how to make your own kimchi' TODAY

Dutch fermentation & meat focussed foodwriter here. Over the past two weeks I've been hosting online masterclasses on fermentation related topics. Yoghurt making, fresh and dry cured sausages, miso making, vegetable fermentation. That kind of stuff. Might as well enjoy our time sitting at home and learn/teach a new skill right.
I'll give a free workshop 'how to make your own kimchi' TODAY. During this English spoken masterclass you will learn all about making your own kimchi, the delicious Korean sauerkraut. Spicy, pungent, healthy, versatile and amazingly tasty. I will explain the steps and show you exactly how to make kimchi at home, safely. Along the way you’ll also learn quite a bit about vegetable fermentation.
Register here.
The live masterclass will be held on wednesday april 1st (no joke!) at 18:00 CET, meaning 20:00 in Moscow, 1:00 pm in New York, 10:00 am in San Francisco. Please check out your own time here.
(also, in the next few weeks I'll be teaching English spoken masterclasses online about how to make miso, kombucha and home distilling, you're most welcome to join..)
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